El asalto a la razón [Texto impreso]: la trayectoria del irracionalismo desde Schelling hasta Hitler. by Lukács, György. Publication date : Asalto a la razon () by Georg Lukacs and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great . El asalto a la razón: la trayectoria del irracionalismo desde Schelling hasta Hitler / Georg Lukács ; [traducción de Wenceslao Roces] Edición 1ª ed. en español.
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Trabajar y ayudar al que lo merece.
El Asalto a la Razon la Trayerctoria Del Irracionalismo Desde Schelling Hast Hilter
Trabajar como una forma lukacss protesta. The Merlin Press, London’. Of course we can find many latecomers — especially in literature and art — for whose work this thesis by no means holds good we need only to mention Dickens and Keller, Courbet and Daumier. These latter names apart, the period between and was rife with significant transitional figures who, while their work does reflect features of the decline, were in no wise party to it with regard to the central substance of their output e.
Certainly the raon started much earlier in the sphere of theoretical learning, particularly economics and philosophy ; bourgeois economics had produced nothing original and forward-looking since the demise of the Ricardo school in the s, while bourgeois philosophy had yielded nothing new since the demise of Hegelianism s and s.
Both these fields were completely dominated by capitalist apologetics. A similar situation obtained in the historical sciences. This in itself asalfo not forestall a certain degeneration of general methodology, an increasingly reactionary slant in the bourgeois philosophy of natural sciences, and an ever-growing zeal in the use of their findings for the propagation of reactionary views.
We are not now speaking of ideological evolution in Russia. Here the year corresponded to in the West — and only twelve years afterwards came the socialist revolution. Only in the light of all these facts are we entitled to claim — without losing a just sense of proportion — that the years marked another turning-point in the development of ideology. In the first place, it was then that the rise of the great nation-states in Central Europe reached completion, and many of the most important demands of the bourgeois revolutions aslto fulfilment; at all events such revolutions had had their day in Western and Central Europe.
Some very essential features of a real bourgeois-revolutionary transformation were lacking in Germany and Italy to say nothing of Austria and Hungaryand there still existed very many relics of feudal absolutism, but from now on it was only thinkable that these could be liquidated through a revolution led by the proletariat. And in those years, the proletarian revolution was already clearly delineated in the Paris Commune. Not only in a French but also in a European context, the battle of June in the revolution had already signified the turning-point.
Its occurrence strengthened the bond between the bourgeoisie and the reactionary classes, and its outcome sealed the fate of every democratic revolution of the period. After what was only a short pause, historically considered, the movements of the working-class masses acquired fresh life; in the First International was founded, and in the proletariat succeeded in gaining power, albeit only for a relatively short time and on a metropolitan scale: There is ample evidence that in his youth, Nietzsche was an ardent Prussian patriot.
This enthusiasm is one of the most significant factors in his early philosophy. It cannot possibly be regarded as a matter of chance or youthful whim that he wanted to be involved in the war of ; nor that, since lukaca Basle professor could not enlist as a soldier, he at least took part as a volunteer nurse. It is at any rate characteristic that his sister although we must view her statements in a highly critical light recorded the following memory of the war.
In his papers of autumnfor example, we find the following: Over and above the war between nations, that international hydra which suddenly raised its fearsome heads has alarmed us by heralding quite different battles to come. Nietzsche quite overlooked the fact that the question had objective economic foundations. Here Nietzsche was a direct forerunner of the Hitlerian view. But the inconstant element is equally clear: It implied an active rejection of the chief enemy, namely the working class and socialism.
And as the class struggle intensified and one illusion crumbled after another, it expanded into an intellectual anticipation of the imperialist phase in capitalist evolution. Only in an imperialist bourgeois state of a decidedly aggressive reactionary hue could Nietzsche find a sufficiently strong defence against the socialist danger; only the emergence of such a power inspired in him the hope of succeeding in neutralizing the working class once and for all. His bitterness about the Germany of his time stemmed from its failure to adopt this measure and its continued hesitancy in doing so.
Assalto very men whom etiquette, respectful feelings, custom and gratitude keep strictly within the pale, as do mutual surveillance and jealousy to an even greater extent, who, on the other hand, prove so resourceful in consideration, self-control, tact, loyalty, pride and friendship — once estranged from these confines, they will behave little better than predatory beasts at large.
For then they will enjoy a freedom from all social constraints; out in the jungle they are immune from the tensions caused by long incarceration and domesticating in the calm of the community. They would do so in the conviction that the poets would have plenty to celebrate again.
Behind all these noble breeds there is asalro mistaking the beast of prey, the magnificent blond razln in greedy search of spoils and conquest Apologetic aims aside, his ignorance of the socio-economic differences between two ages necessarily led to this romantic idealism.
Certainly it is no coincidence that Nietzsche lapsed into romantic fatuity in this particular area; after all, it is the main problem in his philosophizing. In challenging cultural decline and in trying to pioneer a future revival he was no doubt sincere in his lukcs mind, albeit personally sincere from an extremely reactionary class standpoint.
In this light the romantic dream of a culturally highly-developed ruling stratum, representing at the same time an indispensable barbarity, takes on a special colouring. As is widely known, Nietzsche declared a fervent allegiance to atheism; and with the same fervour he denounced all religions, but especially Christianity. That was of great importance for his influence on the intelligentsia, large sections of which were increasingly breaking away from the old religions.
Nonetheless, as we have shown in the case of Schopenhauer, the resultant movement split up into quite different directions. On the one hand, we have an atheism truly materialist in character and based primarily on the development of natural sciences.
Lukacs. El asalto a la Razón..pdf
This, although Darwinian theory gave it a strong temporary impetus E. Haeckelalways exhibited major weaknesses on account of its inability to provide a materialist explanation for social and hence moral, political, etc.
Bounded by a narrowly bourgeois horizon, it usually remained in perpetual oscillation between pessimism and apologetics with regard to such questions. It had the function of satisfying the religious need of those classes that had broken with positive religions, and it did so in the form of polemics against them which became very forceful at times.
But at the same time, it had to preserve the vague religiosity that mattered to the survival of capitalist society. The concept of God, devised as a rival concept to life — it makes a horrible union of everything harmful, poisonous and deceitful, the whole deathly conspiracy against life! The concept of the Beyond and the true world, invented to devalue the only world that there is — leaving no purpose, reason or task for for earth-reality!
In the concept of selflessness, self-denial: Finally — the most dreadful thing of all — in the concept of the good person, supporting all that is feeble, sick, botched, the own cause of its suffering, all that is intended to perish — the law of selection con founded, an ideal born of gainsaying the proud and well-fashioned man, yea-saying, confident, guardian of the future — this man is now called the evil one And all this passed for morality!
We do not need direct quotation to show that here Nietzsche, from first to last, was trying to make the idea of human equality intellectually contemptible and to wipe it out: Let us just point out once more that Nietzsche never, of course, rejected equality out of general ethical considerations; his attitude was the direct result of his stance with regard to democracy, revolution and socialism, which to his mind were necessary fruits of the dominion of Christianity.
Our politics are sick through this absence of courage! Christianity is the revolt of all grovelling creatures against that which has stature: But the grand attitude struck by these sick minds, these intellectual epilepticsacts upon the broad masses — fanatics are picturesque, and mankind would rather see gestures than hear arguments When, therefore, Nietzsche takes his stand as an atheist, the truth is that he is out to destroy socialism.
But this is an illusion, and it is highly likely that Nietzsche was labouring under it himself. Jaspers concedes as much even for the philosophical classics with which Nietzsche was in vigorous dispute throughout his life.
For Nietzsche, biology was one of the means of arguing and making concrete on quasi-scientific lines an essential element in his methodology. The method itself, of course, came into being long before him. In reality the situation is the reverse of this. Scientifically speaking, this methodology has not advanced since the famous fable of Menenius Agrippa.
They insist that the world, even though bereft of a God, must be capable of divine creativity, the infinite power of transformation. It must deliberately restrain itself from reverting to one of its old forms, and must have not only the intention but also the means of preserving itself from all repetition In this way, however, we think we can adequately represent the real coherence of his system of ideas.
During the rise of irrationalism, epistemological questions played a decisive role in philosophy.
And their outcome determined — philosophically — the Concrete questions of the interpretation of history, etc. With Nietzsche this question is completely reversed. His philosophy takes issue with an adversary wholly unknown to it — even in the realm of philosophical theory — that adversary being the asqlto and scientific method of socialism. Nietzsche had not an inkling of the philosophical problems of dialectical and historical materialism.
He contested socialism wherever he thought he could confront it in the flesh: The concrete contents of these philosophical areas are therefore primary to his system. For him epistemology was only lukscs tool whose character and disposition were dictated by the purposes it served. It goes without saying that this applies to an even greater degree to the truths of morality: Fazon regard as good that which serves some end: In the last resort the decisive value is the value for living.
Engels to Conrad Schmidt, WorksBerlinVol. Marx to Lassalle, Mayer, BerlinVol. Der einsame NietzscheLeipzigpp.
Nietzsche to Baron von Gersdorff, Nietzsche, der Philosoph und PolitikerLeipzig, n. NietzschePrinceton There follows a critique of Guyau, ibid. Zahn, Friedrich NietzscheDusseldorfp.
NietzscheBerlinpp. Since such commentators as Kaufmann e. The similarity to which Kaufmann draws attention is of a purely external, stylistic nature. JahrhundertsBerlinpp. Marx criticizes Social Darwinism with annihilating acuteness in the letter to Kugelmann, Engels emphasizes that the Social Darwinists should be criticized in the first place as bad economists, and only then as bad natural philosophers.
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Nietzsche asalti this English term. And thus — the world also lacks the power of eternal innovation. On historical materialism in FeuerbachBerlinp. Nietzsche had no notion of the difference between understanding Verstand and reason Vernunftwhich he employed as synonyms.