16 dez. A yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, anteriormente denominada na literatura científica de Polymnia sonchifolius) é uma planta da espécie. Supplementary Materials: Figure S1 provides evidence that yacon supplementation modifies lipid absorption at the intestinal level through an. (1)Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Universidad Nacional de.
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The aim of this research was to optimize the parameters for the vacuum impregnation of Aloe vera into dried yacon Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp.
A surface response methodology was use to evaluate the product optimization. Matrix engineering, using a vacuum impregnation technique, was employed to incorporate components with physiological activity into the pores present in the yacon flakes. Optimized parameters were identified as From the results, it is concluded that yacon is an excellent raw material for vacuum impregnation of Aloe vera.
Yscon fraction; mass fraction; impregnation solution; physiologically active components; porous structures. In recent years, numerous studies have shown that people who eat a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, with a high vitamin and antioxidant content, have a lower risk of developing diseases.
The functional food market has grown significantly as a consequence of increased promotion and consumers awareness of healthy eating and lifestyle [ 1 ]. Yacon is a tuber from northern and central Andean region of South America. The growing scientific interest in yacon is due to its abundant source of fructan, fructo-oligosaccharides FOSinstead of starch [ 2 ].
Yacon consumption is related to the promotion of human health benefits, such as hypoglycemic effects [ 3 ], [ 4 ]antioxidant activity [ 5 ] ; potential chemoprevention against colon carcinogenesis [ 6 ]. On another hand, Aloe vera has enjoyed a long history of providing a myriad of health benefits, being one of the herbal remedies most frequently used throughout the world [ 7 ], [ 8 ]. The Aloe vera gel sobrf mainly composed of polysaccharides. Other compounds such as phenolics, organic acids, enzymes, vitamins and minerals are also present in minor quantities [ 9 ].
Acemannan, a partially acetylated polysaccharide found in the Aloe vera gel, is investigacciones for its biological activities [ 10 ], [ 11 ], [ 8 ]. All the conditions necessary for the production of yacon and Aloe vera are found in Peru, which makes it necessary to carry out research to develop new products or to apply new processing techniques. In foods processing, this aim is achieved by developing actions and processes that allow the enrichment of vegetable products with desirable compounds.
Yacon syrup: beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance in humans.
Within this context, vacuum impregnation VI has been largely used to obtain a rapid penetration of solvated compounds in plant tissues together with a homogeneous concentration profile of the solutes in the final products [ 12 investigacioens. VI has proved to be an useful method to enrich fruit and vegetable tissue with desirable solutes e. During VI, the vegetable porous fraction composed by the intercellular spaces, is filled by an external solution to a degree that depends on various factors including the applied process conditions sub-atmospheric pressure level, process duration and temperaturethe osmotic pressure and viscosity of the impregnation fluid [ 20 ]the size and shape of the samples, its effective porosity pore size and distribution which affects the capillary pressure of fluids within the vegetable tissue and its response to mechanical stress [ 18 ], [ 21 ], [ 22 ], [ 23 ] Bearing in mind, the new methodologies for obtaining foods with added value, and the wide range of possibilities for capitalizing on yacon, our aim is to evaluate the response to the application of the technique of vacuum impregnation with a solution of Aloe vera in order to create products that can be produced on an industrial scale, nationally yaon internationally.
Enzyme kit for L-malic acid, which contains glycylglycine buffer 6 mL, 1 M, pH Moisture, proteins, fat, ash, fiber and carbohydrates by differencesoluble solids, titratable acidity and pH; density: Density of the solution: The freshly sliced samples were initially immersed in the solution and placed in the vacuum chamber in an Erlenmeyer flask.
Subsequently, different pressures and timings were applied, followed by a further 10 min at atmospheric pressure. The development of the mass was recorded at the beginning and end of the process in order to calculate the volume fraction X.
In Table 1 we present the results obtained by applying different pressures and times for impregnation, with a relaxation time of 10 min for all the samples. The data obtained are initial weight and final weight of the fruit subjected to impregnation with Aloe vera solutions. With those values, the density of the impregnate solution being 1. As can be seen from the Table, the volume fraction data varies with regard to pressure and time. In order to calculate the average volume fraction, we took the values with data obtained after five minutes, which are plotted vs.
Through linear regression of that data, the value of the slope corresponding to effective porosity is calculated, and where the straight line intercepts the x axis indicates the quantity of Aloe vera solution adhering to the fruit due to capillarity.
Given that r is defined as the investigacines between atmospheric pressure and working investigaxiones, the x axis provides information about the index of pressure-gradient intensity [ 29 ]. As can be seen in Figure 1the yacon sample displayed a linear increase in volume fraction, which makes it clear that its plant tissue is subject to low or almost non-existent deformation. In that regard, [ 30 ] found a similar increase for samples of apple, melon, papaya, and peach. In studies conducted on bananas, mamey, and mango they displayed a linear increase in volume fraction values up to certain limits approximately mbarafter which the level of impregnation decreased.
The authors hypothesized that these operating conditions could have produced a high level of deformation i. The conclusion was that these fruits suffer high levels investigsciones deformation when they are subjected to VI treatments in particular operative conditions. The authors stressed the importance of internal variables, such as the number and diameter of pores, the mechanical properties of the solid matrix as well as the spatial distribution and characteristics of the cells, and also the type of fluid liquid or gas present in the intercellular cientiticas, which have to ceintificas taken into consideration in order to make precise adjustments to vacuum impregnation treatments.
Linear regression of the experimental data shows that the volume fraction intercept value is an average of 0.
In apple products enriched with calcium and iron, [ 31 ] jnvestigaciones a volume fraction of 0. In his research into the impregnation of plant tissue with probiotic microorganisms, [ 31 ] also mentions that in apple impregnated with S. The slope is 0. This is confirmed by [ 33 ]who state that the presence of pores in foods can be attributed to many factors, one of which is the existence of the intercellular spaces that are found in the parenchymatous tissue of fruits.
The pores are not homogeneous in size. AI samples unimpregnated pineapple presented values of porosity lower than vacuum impregnated samples, which can be easily explained eo that vacuum application modify the porous structure, causing its expansion [ 34 ]. In general, investigacionse higher the porosity, the higher the level of impregnation [ 29 ], [ 33 ] showed that the levels of impregnation were directly correlated with the porosity values of the vegetables.
However, while the porosity value is an indicator, it is not sufficient to characterize foods cientificaa or to predict their behavior during vacuum impregnation. Table 2 shows the values of malic acid mass fraction X MHD that were established:. The only organic acid contained in the gel of fresh Aloe leaf is malic acid. Aloe is a CAM-type cientificaw Crassulacean Acidic Metabolism plantsand these plants differ from other plants in the vegetable kingdom by not developing photosynthesis.
They open their stomata at night, thereby avoiding transpiration during periods of great daytime heat, and convert carbon dioxide to malic acid. The following day, with their stomata closed, they convert the malic acid into sugars.
The vacuolar accumulation of CO from organic acids, specifically malic acid, makes it possible to quantify its content and in this way to calculate the total presence of Aloe. The results we obtained made it possible to quantify the amount of Aloe incorporated: The final Aloe vera content is similar to that offered in capsule format, in capsules of 50 mg to 1 g. In order to analyze better the nature of the changes to the product during the different operations it undergoes, the behavior of the yacon samples during VI with the Aloe investigacionea solution was studied.
As regards the effect of applying high vacuum pressures for prolonged processing times, a direct effect was observed, namely, there was an increase in volume fraction X and mass fraction X mhd as this factor pressure increased. Figure 2 shows the effects of each independent variable on volume fraction X and Figure 3 shows the effects on mass fraction X mhd.
In those figures, the tendency for solute gains in the fruit as a cientidicas of time and vacuum pressure can be observed.
Among the external variables, vacuum pressure can be considered the most important, aobre that it represents the force that produces the pressure gradient between the vacuum phase of foods and the atmosphere cientificaz the external liquid. For one group of these fruits they observed a greater impregnation in line with an sobge in vacuum pressure, but for the other group the values of X increased with an increase in the vacuum level up to a maximum, after which impregnation was slightly reduced.
Figure 4 shows the estimated response surface for the effect of these relevant process variables on volume fraction X. Figure 5 shows the estimated response surface for the effect of these relevant process variables on investiggaciones fraction X mhd. The equation that describes the estimated response surface for volume fraction with the relevant process variables, plotted in Figure 4is shown in the following equation.
The equation that describes the estimated response surface for volume fraction with the relevant process variables, illustrated in Figure 5is shown in the following equation.
These results corroborate the premise that vacuum gauge pressure is the driving force in the process of vacuum impregnation, given that it was the most relevant effect.
Yacon syrup: beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance in humans.
By optimizing maximizing the process, the skbre volume fraction and mass fraction that is obtained is The vacuum period and relaxation times represent two important variables that affect the results of applying VI. When a short vacuum period is applied, the elimination of gases from the pores is not completed, and thus the gas residues could have impeded penetration by the solution.
When the vacuum period increases, the gases are completely eliminated. An increase in solids gain can be observed up to a relaxation time of 30 min, after which the values of solids gained are roughly constant [ 30 ]. Those authors put forward the hypothesis that 30 min is the time necessary to reach a situation of equilibrium, after which no difference in solids gain is to be observed.
The effect that high vacuum pressures have on parenchymatous cell deformation, together with the difference in size between the molecules of the solute and of water, makes diffusion of the solute through the cell membrane difficult [ 26 ]. Such is the case mentioned in [ 30 ]where banana, mamey and mango displayed a linear increase in the values of X up to certain limits approximately mbarafter which the level of impregnation decreased.
Color is a highly important characteristic in the physical assessment of the quality of foods and can have a negative effect on the presentation of the product.
In the data evaluated, three effects have a p-value less than 0. The most important effect is pressure, as shown in Figure 6. Objective evaluation of color was carried out on the basis of changes to luminance Lit being noted that the highest value obtained after the impregnation process is According to [ 37 ]the change in color is due to the fact that the gas-fluid exchange in the process of impregnation homogenizes the refractive index of the sample, which increases the transparency of the product.
In yacon, the luminance is seen to rise as the pressure increases; that is to say, pressure tends to increase transparency. This may also ssobre due to the use of Aloe vera, because of its chemical composition and ckentificas amount of investihaciones compounds that inactivate the polyphenol oxidase that is responsible for enzymatic browning in many fruits.
As can be seen, the sensory evaluation of taste was significant.
The result is due to the faint presence of acidity in the impregnated dehydrated yacon, given that the Aloe vera solution had a pH of 3. It is worth adding that the impregnated sample was not unpleasant for the evaluator, as expressed in the comments on the sensory evaluation chart used. The replacements of inter- and intra-cellular gas with the impregnation solution, which presents a viscosity higher than that of the internal gas, can positively influence the product consistency and turgidity [ 38 ] As regards color, the sensory evaluation showed non-significant results; color is one of the most important quality parameters in dehydrated products.
Changes in color are due to the concentration of pigments or their degradation. By removing the air from fruit pores and introducing specific solutes, vacuum impregnation can help to prevent browning [ 16 ].
Table 4 presents the results of the chemicophysical analysis of the yacon impregnated with Aloe vera after dehydration. The sample analyzed was the one that produced significant results in the impregnation trials as regards volume and mass fraction, namely the sample subjected to cieentificas pressure of According to the data obtained, it is worth noting the low moisture content Proximate analysis gave results of: What stands out is the high carbohydrate content of yacon.
The substitution with the Aloe vera solution rich in carbohydrates of the yacon pores typical of the gel of the parenchymatous tissue of Aloe vera also contributes to the carbohydrate content of the final product; according to ciemtificas literature, monosaccharides and polysaccharides such as glucomannan are present in Aloe vera. The polysaccharides of Aloe vera have been proven to contribute to pharmacological activity in stimulating cell proliferation and to biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, inmunomodulatory, anti-ulcerative, disinfectant, healing and antioxidant activities [ 40 ].
An average volume fraction of 0. Response Surface Methodology RSM allowed the optimization of mass fraction and volume fraction at a pressure of The sensory evaluation of the 10 semi-trained panel members showed that the p-value for color was 0.
Jettana- cheawchankit, and P.