These special applications are defined in DIN EN (VDE ): , section By harmonising the core colours of cables and wires through the in- stallation .. Colour-code according to IEC Colour of. Learn what each of the various colors mean in wire color coding standards. This standard was originally published as IEC , but was merged into IEC. The standard has been withdrawn; the fourth edition (IEC ) was 2: adopted the IEC colours for fixed wiring in the United Kingdom .
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International standard IEC Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification – Identification of equipment terminals, conductor terminations and conductors defines basic safety principles for identifying electrical conductors by colours or numerals, for example in electricity distribution wiring.
The standard has been withdrawn; the fourth edition IEC If a circuit includes a neutral or oclours conductor, then it should be identified by a blue colour preferably light blue. Light blue is the color used to identify intrinsically safe conductors, and must not be used woring any other type of conductor.
For a single AC phase: The three countries United States, Canada and Japan are mentioned in a note in the standard for using different colours:. British Standard BS This extension is expected to be adopted across Europe and may even find its way into a future revision of IEC The standard is in four volumes, which describe general requirements, fuses for industrial and commercial applications, fuses for residential applications, the IEC standard unifies several national standards, thereby improving the interchangeability of fuses in international trade.
All fuses of different technologies tested to meet IEC standards will have similar time-current characteristics, north American standards call the replaceable element only the wieing.
Wiring colour codes
colousr IEC unifies the electrical characteristics of fuses that are interchangeable with fuses built to earlier British, German. The standard identifies application categories which classify the time-current characteristic of type of fuse. The application category is a two-digit code, the first letter is a if the fuse is for short-circuit protection only, an associated device must provide overload protection.
Coliurs first letter is g if the fuse is intended to operate even with currents as low as those that cause it to blow in one hour and these are considered general-purpose fuses for protection of wires. Fuses of the same application category can be substituted for each other provided the voltage rating of the circuit does not exceed the fuse rating and they are available in five different body sizes, with ratings from 2 A up to A.
The designation of a size consists of the letter D and a Roman numeral, higher-voltage types rated up to V have increased clearance distances and are longer than lower-voltage-rated fuses. D0-type fuses cokours similar but have a smaller, cylindrical body and they are available in three different sizes with ratings from 2 A up to A. In some jurisdictions, replacement of the cartridge by unskilled personnel is allowed only for fuses up to a certain maximum rating.
If the fuse cartridge is inserted into the socket without the cap, fuseholders may be secured by screws to a panel, attached to bus bars, or mounted on DIN rails. For the Neozed fuses, there are also fuse bases with integrated disconnecting switches, changing fuses with the circuit off increases the safety of the user. With new versions of these load disconnecting eiring, the cartridges are no longer screwed. Traditional diazed fuse holders are made as a metal envelope covered with non-conducting porcelain cover.
Under mechanical stress it is possible for the cover to crack partially or fully and it may happen if a fuse holder was accidentally dropped or someone was using too much force to wieing it in. Uncovered metal ic present a risk of shock and should be replaced immediately under extreme precautions by trained personnel. The smaller end cap has a diameter that varies with the fuse rating, the fixed part of the fuse holder contains a gauge ring, which will accept end caps up to a certain diameter.
Each module has a front panel that is 19 inches wide, the inch dimension includes the edges, or ears, that protrude on colousr side which allow the module to be fastened to the rack frame with screws. Ied uses include server, audio, and scientific lab equipment, the height wieing the electronic modules is also standardized as multiples witing 1.
The industry standard rack cabinet is 42U tall, the term relay rack appeared first in the world of colourx.
Bythe term was also being used in railroad signaling, there is little evidence that the dimensions of these early racks were standardized.
The inch rack format with rack-units of 1. The inch rack format has remained constant while the technology that is mounted within it has changed considerably, nineteen-inch racks in two-post or four-post form hold most equipment in modern data centers, ISP facilities, and professionally designed wirlng server rooms.
They allow for dense hardware configurations without occupying excessive floorspace or requiring shelving, nineteen-inch racks are also often used to house professional audio and video equipment, including amplifiers, effects units, interfaces, headphone amplifiers, and even small scale audio mixers. Thus, a 1U rackmount computer is not 1. This gap allows a bit of room above and below a piece of equipment so it may be removed without binding on the adjacent equipment.
State-of-the-art rackmount cases are now constructed of thermo stamped composite, carbon fiber. Originally, the holes were tapped with a particular screw thread. Tapping large numbers of holes that may never be used is expensive, nonetheless tapped-hole racks are still in use, examples include telephone exchanges, network cabling panels, broadcast studios and some government and military applications.
The tapped-hole rack was first replaced by clearance-hole racks, the holes are large enough to permit a bolt to be freely inserted through without binding, and bolts are fastened in place using cage nuts.
In the event of a nut being stripped out or a bolt breaking, production of clearance-hole racks is less expensive because tapping the holes is eliminated and replaced with fewer, less expensive, cage nuts.
The next innovation in design has been the square-hole rack. IEC — IEC is an international standard from the International Electrotechnical Commission for plugs, socket-outlets and couplers for industrial purposes. There is a range of plugs and sockets of different sizes with differing numbers of pins, depending on the current supplied, the fittings are popular in open-air conditions, as they include IP44 weather-proofing.
The blue fittings are used for providing weather-proofed exterior sockets for outdoor apparatus.
In camping dolours, the large 32 A blue fittings provide power to static caravans, whilst the smaller blue 16 A version powers touring caravans, the red three-phase versions are used for three-phase portable equipment. IEC specifies general functional and safety requirements for any form of industrial high-current power connector, IEC specifies a range of mains wirihg connectors with circular housings, and different numbers and arrangements of pins for different applications.
In both cases, the rating applies when detached or mated, but not during the mating process, the more common IP44 variant features a spring-loaded hinged cap over the socket.
When a plug is inserted, the cap hooks over a lug on the plug, fixed connectors are usually installed angled downward to prevent water entering. The IP67 variant includes a gasket and twist-lock ring which seals the two together, wirjng two can be intermated, at the cost of the locking mechanisms, they are only held by friction. The connectors come in four current ratings 16,32,63 or Kec per pin, All consist of cylindrical connector pins arranged in a circle, with the earth pin 2 mm larger than the others.
This is surrounded by a shroud on the male connector.
The standard defines connectors with 3,4 and 5 pins, but a variant with 7 pins is commercially available. The key protrudes an additional 3 or 4 mm beyond the shroud diameter, connectors rated at 63 A and A may optionally be equipped with a 6 mm pilot contact. This smaller pin in the centre of the connector is shorter than the others, coloufs to make all the other pins when connecting a plug and socket.
IEC — Different types of connector are specified for different combinations of current, temperature and earthing requirements. Interconnection couplers allow a supply from a piece of equipment or an appliance to be made oec to other equipment or appliances. Couplers described under these standards have standardized current and temperature ratings, each type of coupler is identified by a standard sheet number. Kettle plug is a term used for the high-temperature C16 appliance inlet.
Kettle plug is sometimes used to refer to regular temperature-rated C13 colourx C14 connectors. Detachable appliance couplers are used in equipment, measuring instruments, IT environments. Each appliances power system must be adapted to the different plugs used in different regions, instead, a country-specific power supply cord can be included in the product packaging, so that model variations are minimized and factory testing is simplified. A cord which is fitted with non-rewireable connectors at both ends is termed a cord set, appliance manufacturing may be simplified by mounting an appliance coupler directly on the printed circuit board.
Assembly and handling of an appliance is easier if the cord can be removed without much effort. Appliances can be used in another country easily, with a change of the power supply cord. The power supply cord can be replaced if jec, because it is a standardized part that can be unplugged and re-inserted. Safety hazards, maintenance expenditure and repairs are minimized, IEC is divided into several parts, IECGeneral Requirements specifies two-pole and two-pole with earth couplers intended for colouds connection of a supply cord to electrical appliances.
As from IECthis part also applies to interconnection couplers which enable the connection and disconnection of an appliance to a cord leading to another appliance.
This part of the no longer includes standard sheets which have been moved to a cloours part colourrs published in IECSewing machine couplers specifies couplers which are not interchangeable with other couplers from IEC and they are rated no higher than 2. IEC Interconnection couplers for household and similar equipment and this section was withdrawn in January AES3 — AES3 is a standard for the exchange of digital audio signals between 60464 audio devices.
The standard has been revised in and and is published in AES, worldwide, it is the most commonly used method for digitally interconnecting audio equipment. Type I oclours use balanced, 3-conductor, ohm twisted pair cabling with XLR connectors, Type I connections are isc often used in professional installations and are considered the AES3 standard connector. The hardware interface is implemented using RS line drivers and receivers.
The AES-3id standard defines a ohm BNC electrical variant of AES3 and this uses the same cabling, patching and infrastructure as analogue or digital video, and is thus common in the broadcast ice.
For information on the synchronization of digital audio structures, qiring the AES11 standard, the ability to insert unique identifiers into an AES3 wirng stream is covered by the AES52 standard. No attempt was made to use a carrier able to support both rates, instead, AES3 allows the data to be run at any rate, and encoding the clock, the basic unit of transmission is the frame.
Frames contain 64 time slots and are produced once per sample time, at the highest level, each consecutive frames are colourx into an audio block. It was conceived as a common mains plug and socket standard for use in territories with V mains, the standard was originally published by the International Electrotechnical Commission inthe current edition is ed2. Part three, IECdefines a family of low voltage connectors.
The sockets are small enough that two can be installed in the space taken by a single Schuko or BS socket, the plugs are slightly larger than the Europlug and provide much more reliable contact. The socket has either a 10 mm deep recess or a 12 mm high rim and it ensures that the protective-earth pin establishes contact before the line and neutral pins. Sockets are required to have 60464 for the line and neutral apertures, however, the IEC standard explicitly discourages the use of multi-standard sockets, claiming that such sockets are likely to create safety problems when used with plugs from other countries.
IEC plugs are similar in size and shape to the Europlug and they are nominally The 3-pin Class I plug is 17 mm high, whereas the 2-pin Class II plug is 14 mm high, the parallel side faces are 26 mm apart, and the two pairs of side faces are orthogonal to each other. The line and neutral pin are on centres spaced at 19 mm, the pins are 19 mm in length with a diameter of 4.
In common with the Europlug there is a sleeve around the base of the line. The 3-pin version has a round protective-earth pin of the length and diameter as the line and neutral pins.
The protective-earth pins center is offset 3 mm from the point between the line and neutral pin. South Africa is the country to have incorporated IEC plugs. International Electrotechnical Commission — The IEC also manages three global conformity assessment systems that certify whether equipment, system or components conform to its International Standards.
Init published a multilingual international vocabulary to unify terminology relating to electrical, electronic and this effort continues, and the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary remains an important work in the electrical and electronic industries. It has regional centres in Asia-Pacific, Latin America and North America, today, the IEC is the worlds leading international organization in its field, and its standards are adopted as national standards by its members.
The work is done by some 10, electrical and electronics experts from industry, government, academia, test labs, IEC standards have numbers in the range — and their titles take a form such as IEC, Graphical symbols for use on equipment. The IEC is made up of members, called national committees, national committees are constituted in different ways. colpurs
IEC – WikiVisually
This mode is used to connect the output of a DVD player or computer, via optical or coax, another common use is to carry two channels of uncompressed digital audio from a CD player to an amplifying receiver.
In order to both systems, as well as others that might wiging needed, the format has no defined data rate. Instead, the data is sent using biphase mark code, which has one or two transitions for every bit, allowing the original word clock to be extracted from the signal itself. The is a set of design made to ensure that wind turbines are appropriately engineered against damage from hazards within the planned lifetime.
The standard concerns most aspects of the life from site conditions before construction.