HIPODINAMIA UTERINA PDF

English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word ‘hiperdinamia uterina’. NOMBRE: FLOR SUSANA TENENUELA CEPEDA PREGUNTAS DE HIPODINAMIAS ¿DESCRIBA LAS CARACTERISTICA DE LA CONTRACCION UTERINA?. Hipodinamia Uterina Terminado. Uploaded by. LizsavelSV · RCP PEDIATRICO. Uploaded by. LizsavelSV · Manejo Activo de Trabajo de Parto. Uploaded by.

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hiperdinamia uterina – English Translation – Word Magic Spanish-English Dictionary

Post on Nov views. Bubaline Theriogenology, Purohit G. Cattle and buffalo are considered the species in which the incidence of dystocia appears to be highest [1]. Parturition appears to be easier in the river buffalo because of a capacious pelvis, a larger area of ileum and the free and easily separable fifth sacral vertebra [2].

Compared to cows, buffaloes have a less conspicuous shorter and narrower cervix, smaller and less tight vagina and elongated and wide apart vulvar lips Fig. In spite of a longer gestation period in buffaloes to days for the river and to days for the swamp buffalo [4]lesser time is required for completion of first utdrina second stages of labor [2,5,6] 70 and 20 minutes in river buffalo and there is a preponderance for parturition during night hours uteerina.

The incidence of dystocia is considered to be higher in river than in swamp buffalo in which it has not been described [1] and also in primipara than in pleuripara [4], however, a few studies consider higher incidence of dystocia in pleuriparous buffaloes [8]. In a recent analysis, significantly higher proportion of dystocia affected buffaloes were in the first and second parities compared to all other parities [9].

The vulvar lips of a buffalo. To view click on figureCauses of Dystocia in BuffaloesThe causes of dystocia are hipodinamiaa classified into the maternal and fetal causes. Buffaloes are known to have greater incidence of maternal dystocia [1,10,11], however, in several other studies; a higher incidence of fetal dystocia was recorded [8,12,13]. In the authors experience buffalo generally have fewer problems with the dilation of the birth canal compared to cattle and there is a greater incidence of uterine torsion in buffaloes [9].

An uncommon cause of constriction of birth canal is carcinoma hipodinzmia the urinary bladder [15,16] with metastasis in the cervix. Pelvic AbnormalitiesPelvic abnormalities of the mother that can result in dystocia include small size of the pelvis [9], pelvic deformities or exostoses, osteomalacia and hypoplasia of the vagina and vulva [2].

Breeding of heifers at too young an age, breeding of poorly grown heifers, or breeding of heifers and cows that had pelvic fractures, can result in a smaller pelvis of the mother culminating in dystocia at parturition.

Breeding of small sized breeds of buffaloes with breeds of larger size can result in fetuses of bigger size getting stuck in the small sized pelvis of the mother, however; this has not been uteriba for buffaloes. In buffaloes, the symphysis pubis is hipoodinamia fused completely as it is in cows [17], however, a narrow pelvis is a known cause of dystocia in the buffalo [18]. The incidence of narrow pelvis has been recorded to vary between 2.

The incidence of pelvic deformities as a cause of dystocia in buffaloes is described to be 1. In cows and buffaloes, the incidence of narrow pelvis is known to be 9. Pelvic fractures can result into a narrow pelvic canal [20]. Clinical SignsUsually, there is a lack of progress in the second stage of labor.

If the fetus is able to enter the pelvis partially, severe non-progressive straining occurs. If the fetus is too large, then there is no progress in delivery subsequent to first stage of labor.

Vaginal examination must be done to compare the fetal and pelvic size. Any previous fractures Fig. A buffalo with pelvic fracture. Note the angulation of the right side of the hip. To view click on figureManagement of DystociaOn manual palpation, clinicians must assess whether the fetus can pass through the birth canal with assistance.

If this seems possible traction must be applied on the fetus after plenty of lubrication. However, excessive traction in a narrow birth canal is not advisable.

It is better to opt for a caesarean section if the birth canal is too narrow, or if it is coupled with fetal postural abnormality [1]. Spontaneous vaginal ruptures during parturition Fig.

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Occasionally herniation of intestines through the rupture has been reported [24,25]. Fetal parts may get stuck in a ruptured vagina and result in dystocia [26], or the gravid horn may sometimes prolapse hipodiinamia the vaginal rupture [27].

Meaning of “hipersistolia” in the Portuguese dictionary

Postpartum vaginal ruptures can sometimes result in prolapse of abdominal organs [24]. Vaginal cysts have been seen in buffalo [28] but they seldom occur at parturition. A postpartum buffalo with vaginal rupture. To view click on figureClinical SignsImproper vulvar relaxation may be confirmed clinically and there may be difficulty in inserting a lubricated hand into the birth canal.

Improper vaginal relaxation is evident on internal examination of the vagina. Perivaginal abscesses or hematomas may be palpable assoft or firm fluctuating masses pressing the vaginal walls inwardly [1]. Vaginal ruptures can be located by careful palpation. Fluid accumulations can be seen lateral to the vulva Fig. Fluid accumulation lateral to the vulva is visible. To view click on figureManagement of DystociaThe suggested management of a constricted vulva is gentle manipulation with or without an episiotomy cut, about one third down the lateral wall of the vulva through the skin mucosa junction.

Mucosal folds in the vagina caudal to the cervix obstructing the passage of the fetus can be broken manually. The use of creams containing prostaglandins E2 are common practice in medical obstetrics and can be tried in functional non-dilation, however, in large sized perivaginal abscesses or hematomas; it is a wise decision to opt for a caesarean section rather than to apply undue traction.

The fetus must be delivered by traction in the presence of vaginal ruptures which must then be sutured. Likewise, the prolapsed part must be replaced and the vagina sutured. Neoplasms of Vagina, Vulva, UterusSub-mucosal vaginal tumors are uncommon in buffaloes, however, squamous cell carcinoma [29], perivaginal granuloma [30], lipoma [31] and fibroma [29], have been reported but seldom seen clinically during dystocia.

Tumors of the cervix include fibroma [32], adenoma, fibro-leiomyoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma of the cervix has been recorded in the buffalo [15,16]. The tumor masses in cervix and vagina seldom obstruct the birth canal and are usually noticed subsequent to parturition when they prolapse out. Tumors of the uterus are recorded from genitalia usually obtained postslaughter and include adenoma [33], leiomyoma [34] lipoma [33] and fibroma [29,35].

When noticed clinically, they either prevent a pregnancy or culminate in abortion [36]. The incidence of uterine tumors in buffaloes is known to vary from 0. Vaginal CystocoeleVaginal cystocoele has been described to occur in the buffalo [38,39] and can result in dystocia.

The condition involves the protrusion of the urinary bladder either through the eversion of the organ through the urethra [40] or prolapse through a rupture on the vaginal floor [24], which is more likely in buffaloes. Since the prolapsed bladder may obstruct the birth canal, it is suggested to identify the organ and replace it back after repelling the protruding parts of the fetus, under epidural anesthesia and ample lubrication.

The vaginal rupture must be sutured after replacement of the urinary bladder. The fetus can then be delivered.

Vaginal cyst has been recorded in buffalo [41]. Incomplete Cervical DilationThe dilation of the cervix at the time of delivery is essential for the easy passage of the fetus. A wide variety of changes in the hormonal milieu [42], enzymatic loosening of fibrous strands by elevated collagenase [43], and the physical forces of the uterine contractions and fetal mass, are all considered to be involved in producing hi;odinamia sufficient dilatation of the cervix during parturition in the buffalo [44,45].

The activation of the inflammatory network is considered to play an important role in the hipodinaia of cervical dilation [46]. An increase in inflammatory cytokines during parturition is known to effect dilation [47] as is the interplay of hormones. In buffaloes, however, cervical non-dilation is rare.

Only sporadic cases have been reported [48]. Animals with delivery problems associated with the cervix are those that had already delivered many calves [49]. Cervical non-dilation can occur because of the failure of any of the mechanisms responsible for dilation described above or spasm of the cervical muscles [4] or some other poorly understood mechanisms that results in dystocia. Cervical dilation failure is commonly observed in buffaloes subsequent to correction of uterine torsion and is considered a major obstacle in fetal delivery per vaginum [50] especially in the presence of a dead fetus.

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Hipoodinamia observations on buffaloes affected with uterine torsion revealed progression towards severe inflammation [51].

These inflammatory and necrotic changes in the hipkdinamia subsequent to torsion lead to failure of the cervix to dilate [51]. Uterija collective incidence of incomplete cervical dilation in buffaloes is described to vary from 1. Clinical SignsWhen the cervix is fully dilated, it is not hipodinakia as a separate structure and is continuous with the vagina.

Incompletely dilated or undilated cervix is palpable through transrectal examination. By examination per uyerina only a finger or two can be inserted in a partially dilated cervix. Parts of the fetus or the water bags can sometimes be palpated at the cervix.

It is uncommon for buffaloes to show poor vulvar relaxation along with improper cervical dilation Fig. On the left, a parturient buffalo with improper vulvar relaxation and cervical dilation.

A parturient buffalo with proper vulvar relaxation is shown on the right side. To view click on figureManagement of DystociaAttempts can be made to dilate the cervix manually if possible using sponge tents and local anesthetics [2], but because the cervix has many annular rings it is often not possible to dilate the bubaline cervix manually. If the fetus is present in the birth canal, gentle traction over long periods can sometimes dilate the cervix, but excessive traction is not advisable.

It sometimes happens that a maldisposed fetus present in a previously dilated birth canal becomes tightly impacted because of continued uterine contractions without fetal delivery.

An obstetrician must differentiate such a case from incomplete cervical dilation. If the cervix remains closed, the fetus is alive and its fetal membranes are intact, it is suggested to wait for 30 minutes to allow time for natural dilation.

A common confusion for cervical non dilation appears in cases of hi;odinamia torsion.

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Clinicians must differentiate uterine torsion from cervical non dilation by complete vaginal and rectal examination. A deficiency of estrogen is considered to be one important cause of failure of cervical dilation [52], hence, injection of estrogens like estradiol valerate mg IM can be helpful, however, estrogen should be given with care in a completely closed cervix because of the dangers of uterine rupture that may follow because of violent contractions. Moreover, the use of estrogens should be extremely judicious as it can result in complete milk cessation, prolapse of genitals and development of ovarian cysts [53].

Likewise, injections of oxytocin IU, IV or IM can be given to promote uterine contractions to effect cervical dilation when the cervix is partially dilated. When the legs of a putrefied dead, fetus are present in the birth canal and the fetus cannot come out because of an incompletely dilated cervix, the authors suggest a partial cervicotomy instead of a caesarean. One or two cuts applied on the cervix are usually sufficient to deliver the calf.

Moreover, the 2-adrenergic drugs would reduce uterine contractions and hence delay parturition. Thrice hourly massage 15 min each with 1 liter of sodium carboxymethylcellulose has been suggested [54] to achieve sufficient cervical dilation for fetal delivery when the cervix does not dilate after uterine torsion correction.

Prostaglandin injections have also been suggested subsequent to torsion correction when the fetus is alive and the cervix is not sufficiently yipodinamia [55]. Cesarean section is indicated if the uterinw is found hard hipodinsmia lobulated subsequent to correction of uterine torsion in buffaloes with a dead fetus [54].

Cesarean section appears to be the best solution when all attempts at cervical dilation have failed. Use of relaxin as a cervical ripening agent and hipodjnamia use hpodinamia inducing labor in human subjects still remain unclear [56] and hence, hipodinajia use in animal therapy is out of the question because of the high cost.