: Syncretism in the West: Pico’s Theses (): The by Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola (Author), Stephen A. Farmer (Editor, Translator). Count Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, – (at center), Syncretism in the West: Pico’s Theses (): The Evolution of Traditional. Italian Renaissance philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola defended theses on religion, philosophy, natural philosophy and magic.

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Giovanni Pico della Mirandola Italian: The Theses was the first printed book to be universally banned by the Church. Mirandola was a small autonomous county later, a duchy in Emilianear Ferrara. Born twenty-three years into his parents’ marriage, Giovanni had two much older brothers, both of whom outlived him: Count Galeotto I continued the dynasty, while Antonio became a general in the Imperial army.

Giovanni’s maternal family was singularly distinguished in the arts and scholarship of the Italian Renaissance. His cousin and contemporary was the poet Matteo Maria Boiardo, who grew up under the influence of his own uncle, the Florentine patron of the arts and scholar-poet Tito Vespasiano Strozzi.

Giovanni had a paradoxical relationship with his nephew Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandolawho was a great admirer of his uncle, yet published Examen vanitatis doctrinae gentium in opposition to the “ancient wisdom narrative” espoused by Giovanni, described by historian Charles B.

Schmitt as an attempt “to destroy what his uncle had built. A precocious child with an exceptional memory, Giovanni was schooled in Latin and possibly Greek at a very early age.

Picco for the Church by his mother, he was named a papal protonotary probably honorary at the age of ten and in he went to Bologna to study canon law. At the sudden death mirandols his mother three years later, Pico renounced canon law and began to study philosophy at the University of Ggiovanni. For the rest of his life he remained very close friends with all three, including the ascetic and anti-humanist Savonarola. Del Dwlla also translated Judaic manuscripts from Hebrew into Latin for Pico, as he would continue to do for a number of years.

Pico also wrote sonnets in Latin and Italian which, because of the influence of Savonarola, he destroyed at the giovani of his life. He spent the next four years either at home, or visiting humanist centres elsewhere in Italy. Inhe travelled to the University of Paristhe viovanni important centre in Europe for scholastic philosophy and theology, and a hotbed of secular Averroism.

It was probably in Paris that Giovanni began his Theses and conceived the idea of defending them in public debate. In the meantime they will be published in all Italian universities. And if any philosopher or theologian, even from the ends of Italy, wishes to come to Rome for the sake of debating, his lord the disputer promises to pay the travel expenses from his own funds.

During this time two life-changing events occurred. The first was when he returned to settle for a time in Florence in November and met Lorenzo de’ Medici and Marsilio Ficino. It was an astrologically auspicious day that Ficino had chosen to publish his translations of the works of Plato from Greek into Latin, under Lorenzo’s enthusiastic patronage.

Pico appears to have charmed both men, and despite Ficino’s philosophical differences, he was convinced of their Saturnine affinity and the divine providence of his arrival. Lorenzo would support and protect Pico until his death in Thees Lorenzo’s support, it is doubtful that Pico would have survived the Inquisition coming after him.

Pico della Mirandola, Theses

Soon after this stay in Florence, Pico was travelling on his way to Rome where he intended to publish his Theses and prepare for a “congress” of scholars from all over Europe to debate them. Stopping in Arezzo he became embroiled in a love affair with the wife of one of Lorenzo de’ Medici’s cousins. It almost cost him his life. Giovanni attempted to run off with the woman, but he was caught, wounded and thrown into prison by her husband.

He was released only upon the intervention of Lorenzo himself. The incident is representative of Pico’s often audacious temperament and of the loyalty and affection he nevertheless could inspire. Pico spent several months in Perugia and nearby Fratta, recovering from his injuries. It was there, as he wrote to Ficino, that “divine Providence They are Chaldean books The most original of his theses concerned the Kaballah.


As a result, he became the founder of the tradition known as Christian Kabbalahwhich went on to be a central part of early modern Western esotericism.

Pico based his ideas chiefly on Plato, as did his teacher, Marsilio Ficino, but retained a deep respect for Aristotle. Although he was a product of the studia humanitatisPico was constitutionally an eclecticand in some respects he represented a reaction against the exaggerations of pure humanism, defending what he believed to be the best of the medieval and Islamic commentators, such as Averroes and Avicennaon Aristotle in a famous long letter to Ermolao Barbaro in It was always Pico’s aim to reconcile the schools of Plato and Aristotle since he believed they used different words to express the same concepts.

It was perhaps, for this reason, his friends called him “Princeps Concordiae”, or “Prince of Harmony” a pun on Prince of Concordia, one of his family’s holdings. He finished his “Oration on the Dignity of Man” to accompany his Theses and traveled to Rome to continue his plan to defend them.

He had them published together in December as “Conclusiones philosophicae, cabalasticae et theologicae”and offered to pay the expenses of any scholars who came to Rome to debate them publicly.

Pico della Mirandola and the 900 Theses

He wanted the debate to begin on 6 January, which was, as historian Steven Farmer has observed, the feast of Epiphany and “symbolic date of the submission of the pagan gentes to Christ in the persons of the Magi”. After emerging victorious at the culmination of the debate, Pico planned not only on the symbolic acquiescence of the pagan sages, but also the conversion of Jews as they realised that Jesus was the true secret of their traditions. According to Farmer, Pico may have been expecting quite literally that “his Vatican debate would end with the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse crashing through the Roman skies”.

Although Pico answered the charges against them, thirteen of them were condemned. Pico agreed in writing to retract them, but he did not change his mind about their validity. Eventually all theses were condemned. He proceeded to write an apologia defending them, Apologia J. Pici Mirandolani, Concordiae comitispublished inwhich he dedicated to his patron, Lorenzo. When the pope was apprised of the circulation of this manuscript, he set up an inquisitorial tribunal, forcing Pico to renounce the Apologiain addition to his condemned theses, which he agreed to do.

The pope condemned Theses as:. In part heretical, in part the flower of heresy; several are scandalous and offensive to pious ears; most do nothing but reproduce the errors of pagan philosophers This was the first time that a printed book had been banned by the Church, and nearly all copies were burned.

Through the intercession of several Italian princes — all instigated by Lorenzo de’ Medici — King Charles VIII had him released, and the pope was persuaded to allow Pico gheses move to Florence and to live under Lorenzo’s protection.

But he was not cleared of the papal censures and restrictions untilafter the accession of Alexander VI Rodrigo Borgia to the papacy.

The experience deeply shook Pico. He thfses with Savonarola, who remained a very close friend. It was at Pico’s persuasion that Lorenzo invited Savonarola to Florence. But Pico never renounced his syncretist convictions.

He settled in a villa near Fiesole prepared for him by Lorenzo, where he wrote and published the Heptaplus id est de Dei creatoris opere and De Ente et Uno Of Being and Unity It was here that he also wrote his other most celebrated work, the Disputationes adversus astrologiam divinicatrium Treatise Against Predictive Astrologywhich was not published until after his death.

In it, Pico acidly condemned the deterministic practices of the astrologers of his day. After the death of Lorenzo de’ Medici, inPico moved to Ferrara, although he continued to visit Thses. In Florence, political instability gave rise to the increasing influence of Savonarola, whose reactionary opposition to Renaissance expansion and style had already brought about conflict with the Medici family they eventually were expelled from Florence and would lead to the wholesale destruction of books and paintings.

Nevertheless, Pico became a follower eella Savonarola. Determined to become a picp, he dismissed his former interest in Egyptian and Chaldean texts, destroyed his own poetry and gave away his fortune.


Inat the age of picl, Pico was poisoned under mysterious circumstances along with his friend Angelo Poliziano. Our dear Pico left us on the same day that Charles VIII was entering Florence, and the tears of men of letters compensated for the joy of the people.

Without the light brought by the king of France, Florence might perhaps have never seen a more somber day than that which extinguished Mirandola’s light.

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

In thsses, the bodies of Poliziano and Pico della Mirandola were exhumed from St. Mark’s Basilica in Florence. Scientists under the supervision of Giorgio Gruppioni, a professor of anthropology from Bologna, attempted to determine the cause of the two men’s death using modern technology.

In the Oratio de hominis dignitate Oration pjco the Mirandloa of Man, Pico justified the importance of the human quest for knowledge within a Neoplatonic framework. Giovannni Oration also served as an introduction to Pico’s theses, which he believed to provide a complete and sufficient basis for the discovery of all knowledge, and hence a model for pco ascent of the chain of being. The Theses are a good example of humanist syncretism, because Pico combined PlatonismNeoplatonismAristotelianism, Hermeticism and Kabbalah.

They also included 72 theses describing what Pico believed to be a complete system of physics. Pico’s De animae immortalitate Paris,and other works, developed the doctrine that man’s possession of an immortal soul freed him from the hierarchical stasis. Pico believed in universal reconciliationas one of his theses was “A mortal sin of finite duration is not deserving of eternal but only of temporal punishment;” it was among the theses pronounced heretical by Pope Innocent VIII in his bull of 4 August This paradigm is universal, because it can be retraced in every tradition.

A portion of his Disputationes adversus astrologiam divinatricem was published in Bologna after his death. In this book Pico presents arguments against the practice of astrology that have had enormous resonance for centuries, up to our own time. Pico’s antagonism to astrology seems to derive mainly from the conflict of astrology with Christian notions of free will.

But Pico’s arguments moved beyond the objections of Ficino, who was himself an astrologer. The manuscript was edited for publication after Pico’s death by his nephew Giovanni Francesco Pico della Mirandolaan ardent follower of Savonarola, and may possibly have been amended to be more forcefully critical. This might possibly explain the fact that Ficino championed the gioovanni and enthusiastically endorsed it before its publication. Tgeses in his career, Pico wrote a Commento sopra una canzone d’amore di Girolamo Benivieniin which he revealed his plan to write a book entitled Poetica Theologia: It was ;ico opinion of the ancient theologians that divine subjects and the secret Mysteries must not be rashly divulged How that was done Pico’s Heptaplusa mystico-allegorical exposition of the creation according to the seven Biblical senses, elaborates on his idea that different religions and traditions describe the same God.

The book is written in his characteristic apologetic and polemic style:. If they agree with us anywhere, we shall order the Hebrews to stand by the ancient traditions of their fathers; if anywhere they disagree, then drawn up in Catholic legions we shall make an attack upon them.

In short, whatever we detect foreign to the truth of the Gospels we shall refute to the extent of our power, while whatever we find holy and true we shall bear off from the synagogue, as from a wrongful possessor, to ourselves, the legitimate Israelites.

On Being and the One Latin: De ente et uno piico, has explanations of several passages in MosesPlato and Aristotle. It is an attempted reconciliation between Platonic miradola Aristotelian writings tjeses the relative places of being and ” mirndola one ” and a refutation of opposing arguments. He wrote in Italian an imitation of Plato’s Symposium. His letters Aureae ad familiares epistolaeParis, are important for the history of contemporary thought.