The effects of the aqueous crude extract (5%) of Eugenia punicifolia on cholinergic nicotinic neurotransmission were investigated. Actions of. Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC (Myrtaceae), popularly known as pedra-ume-caá, pedra-ume, murta, or muta, is a shrub found mainly in the. Figure 16 Body weight evolution in rats with acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers treated with oral administration of vehicle, lansoprazole.
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To evaluate the sex-specific effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from Eugenia punicifolia HEEP leaves on gastric ulcer healing. In this rat study involving males, intact cycling females, and ovariectomized females, gastric ulcers were induced using acetic acid.
A vehicle, lansoprazole, or HEEP was punicifplia for 14 d after ulcer induction. Body weight was monitored throughout the treatment period. At the end of treatment, the rats were euthanized and the following in vivo and in vitro investigations were performed: Additionally, the concentration-dependent effect of HEEP was evaluated in terms of subacute toxicity and cytotoxicity. Compared to the vehicle, HEEP demonstrated a great healing capacity by substantially reducing the ulcerative lesion area in males Overall, the beneficial effect of HEEP was the highest in intact females.
Notably, HEEP promoted the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor intact vs ovariectomized females and decreased the expression of Caspase-8 and Bcl-2 intact female vs male or ovariectomized female. Additionally, Punicifklia enhanced fibroblast proliferation and migration into a wounded area in vitroconfirming its healing effect.
Finally, no sign of subacute toxicity or cytotoxicity of HEEP was observed. In gastric ulcers, HEEP-induced healing modulated by female sex hormones; in males, mediated by prostaglandin involves extracellular matrix remodeling, with gastric mucosa cell proliferation and migration.
Gastric eugenka, which occur punicigolia to an imbalance between protective and aggressive agents at the gastric mucosa surface, is a chronic disease that affects millions worldwide and has high rates of relapse. The conventional treatment for gastric ulcers is associated with several side effects and poor healing of the gastric mucosa.
Eugenia punicifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat inflammation and wounds. The present study in rats with gastric ulcers confirms the healing effect of Eugenia punicifolia extract and clarifies its differential effect in males and females. These findings are useful for developing novel and safe therapies for gastric ulcers.
Gastric ulcers, which result from an imbalance between the protective and aggressive agents at the surface of the gastric mucosa, is a chronic disease that affects millions around the world and has high relapse rates[ 12 ]. Alcohol consumption, prolonged treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stress, and Helicobacter pylori infection favor such an imbalance and represent key punicifllia factors of gastric ulcers[ 3 ].
Current treatment strategies for gastric ulcers involve the use of anti-secretory punicifolis, including antagonists of histamine receptor type 2 e. While such treatments are effective, prolonged use of anti-secretory drugs, especially ranitidine and proton pump inhibitors, is associated with several side effects[ 4 ] and poor healing of the gastric mucosa[ 5 ]. InTarnawski et al[ 6 ] proposed the concept of quality punicifklia ulcer healing, which takes into consideration the fact that tissue regeneration within the ulcer scar is often incomplete.
Within the quality of ulcer healing concept, the evaluation of gastric ulcer healing is focused on whether the structure and function of the mucosal and submucosal tissue have recovered completely, in addition to endoscopic examination and evaluation puhicifolia ulcer size.
It has been shown that ulcer recurrence is closely related to the quality of ulcer healing[ 7 ]. Ulcers frequently recur following treatment with anti-secretory drugs[ 78 ]. Therefore, alternative therapies for gastric ulcers are desirable[ 9 ].
Herbal combination preparations are popular among traditional herbal eugdnia practitioners. The rationale behind such combinations is frequently questioned, and upnicifolia remains challenging to assess the individual contribution of each component to the overall activity of the herbal combination preparation. This holds especially true when the preparation is used in the treatment of a chronic multifactorial disease such as gastric ulcers[ 10 ].
The leaves of E. The gastroprotective activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of E. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether HEEP has punicifllia beneficial effects in the healing of installed gastric ulcers, since the gastroprotective activities of an extract do not ensure their gastric healing effects in installed gastric ulcers[ 17 ]. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the sex-specific puniciffolia of HEEP in the healing of gastric ulcers in a rat model.
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For this purpose, we employed a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers and analyzed the curative action of HEEP in males, intact females, and ovariectomized females.
The following chemicals and reagents were used: The same saline solution used as a vehicle served as a negative control. In DecemberDr. Catarina dos Santos collected the leaves of E. The dried and crushed leaves 10 g of plant material were dissolved in mL of solvent consisting of a Thereafter, the solution was filtered, and the residue was extracted twice more.
The animal protocol was designed to minimize pain or discomfort to the animals. The in vivo experiments used male g and female g Wistar albino rats obtained from the breeding facility of the State University of Campinas Multidisciplinary Center for Biological Research.
The animals were kept in cages with raised, wide-mesh floors to prevent coprophagy. The estrous cycle was verified through a vaginal smear performed daily starting on postnatal day The material was observed under an optical microscope, and the estrous cycle phase was determined by cytology[ 18 – 20 ].
The duration of the estrous cycle was calculated as the number of days between one estrus phase and the next. Only female rats that showed two consecutive regular cycles of d were included in the experiment.
Additionally, ovariectomized OVZ females were included. We performed bilateral ovariectomies in ten-week-old female rats and we verified the absence of estrous cycle through a vaginal smear after 2 wk.
The experiments were performed in 90 d old males as well as in intact and OVZ female puicifolia. The 84 animals included in the study 30 males, 30 intact females, 24 ovariectomized females were divided into nine groups with individuals each.
Group allocation was performed according to sex male vs femalehormonal status in females intact vs OVZand treatment negative control vs positive control vs HEEP. All subsequent analyses except for the pnuicifolia viability and migration assays were performed in each of the nine groups. A plastic tube with an internal diameter of 4. The acetic acid was left to act for 20 s and then completely removed.
Beach Cherry – Eugenia punicifolia
The stomach was bathed with saline to avoid adherence to the external surface of the ulcerated region, and the abdomen was closed. Subsequently, all animals were fed normally. In order to determine the healing effect of Eutenia, three d treatment protocols were evaluated in this study.
The three groups of negative controls males, intact females, and OVZ females received 0. All treatments were delivered orally once daily beginning one day after surgery and continuing for 14 d.
One day after the last drug administration, the rats were euthanized through decapitation and the stomachs were removed to evaluate the lesions. The ulcer tissue was also removed and analyzed.
The organs were removed and weighed. Additionally, analysis of blood collected upon euthanasia was performed. The animals were not anesthetized prior to decapitation, since anesthetics may interfere with the results punicifola the biochemical parameters evaluated.
The percentage of viable cells was calculated as Abs. The proliferation ability of fibroblasts exposed to HEEP was assessed using the scratch-wound assay, according to a protocol previously described by Balekar et al[ 24 ], with a few modifications.
Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science
The scratch test measures the expansion of a cell population on surfaces. Any cellular debris created while making the scratch was removed by gently washing the wells with PBS. The plates were evaluated after 24 h and 48 h of incubation to assess the closure of the scratch wounds. All experiments were performed in triplicate.
Tissue containing the gastric ulcer was used to extract total protein. Finally, the protein content was quantified using the biuret method[ 2526 ]. The complete protocol for gelatin zymography was previously described by Justulin et al[ 27 ]. After electrophoresis, the gels were subjected to two 15 min washes in a solution of 2. Finally, the gels were stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R The bands obtained through zymography were scanned and analyzed by densitometry.
The bands representative of the gelatinase activity of matrix metalloproteinase MMP -2 and MMP-9 were analyzed in terms of the integrated optical density IOD of the bands. For this test, the protein extracts were obtained as described above for zymography.
After extraction, the samples were treated with Laemmili buffer 0. The membranes were washed with PBS and incubated with a specific secondary antibody for 2 h horseradish peroxidase, 1: After washing, the reactions were detected using an enhanced chemiluminescence kit Amersham Biosciences, Westborough, MA, United States and the signals were captured using a G: The expression levels were normalized to that of actin 1: Body weight was recorded daily throughout the experimental period.
Macroscopic analyses and weighing of the vital organs liver, kidneys, heart, spleen, and lungs were performed at the end of the treatment. The statistical methods of this study were reviewed by Dr.
To evaluate the HEEP-mediated healing effect of gastric ulcers, we measured the gastric lesion area at the end of treatment. In male rats, d treatment with HEEP was associated with significantly decreased lesion area Among females, HEEP was associated with a very significant reduction in lesion area, both in cycling rats No cytotoxicity signal was found after 24 h of incubation with HEEP, regardless of concentration 0.
We performed an in vitro scratch-wound test to determine whether HEEP possesses cell proliferation activity. In contrast, MMP-2 activity was present in all rats.
To determine the protein expression profiles associated with HEEP-mediated healing of gastric ulcers, we examined the western blotting gels for several important contributors to cell growth and cell death. Western blot analysis revealed that male rats and OVZ rats had low VEGF expression at 14 d after induction of gastric ulcers, regardless of treatment low-signal band; Figure In addition to growth factors, we evaluated apoptotic factors including caspase-8 Figure 12caspase-9 Figure 13and caspase-3 Figure 14as well as the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 Figure In male rats, oral administration of HEEP was not associated with any deaths or significant changes in body weight throughout the 14 d of treatment Figure None of the female animals died during the treatment period, and no significant changes in body weight were noted.
The acetic acid-induced gastrointestinal ulcer model is a classical model that has proven suitable for investigating the effect of treatment on the healing process of chronic gastrointestinal ulcers[ 28 ], provided that the wounds resemble human ulcers that do not heal naturally[ 293031 ]. Such data can also help in the discovery of new anti-ulcer drugs or treatment targets.