The Sumerian Epie taie “Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta” contains in lines a highly interesting passage which has recently been the subject of two. Posts about Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta written by Esteban. The story of Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta begins in legendary times, before many of the inventions of civilization — such as written communication by letter.

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Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta is a legendary Sumerian account, of preserved, early post-Sumerian copies, composed in the Neo-Sumerian period ca.

It is one of a series of accounts describing the conflicts between Enmerkarking of Unug-Kulaba Urukand the unnamed king of Aratta probably somewhere in modern Iran or Armenia. Because it gives a Sumerian account of the ” confusion of tongues “, and also involves Enmerkar constructing temples at Eridu and Uruk, it has, since the time of Samuel Lofd[1] been compared with the Tower of Babel narrative in the Book of Genesis.

Near the beginning of the account, the following background is provided: Plenty, and carp floods and the rain which brings forth dappled barley were then increased in Unug Off. Before the land of Dilmun yet existed, the E-ana of Unug Kulaba was well founded. E-ana was a temple in Uruk built in honour of the goddess Inannathe “lady of all the lands”— E -ana is ‘house of An’, or ‘Temple of An’.

Similarly, the lord of Aratta has himself afatta in Arahta name, but she does not find this as pleasing as her brick temple th Uruk. Enmerkar, thus “chosen by Inanna in her holy heart from the bright mountain”, then asks Inanna to let him subject Aratta and make the people of Aratta deliver a tribute of precious metals and gemstones, for constructing the lofty Abzu temple of Enki at Eriduas well as for embellishing her own E-ana sanctuary at Uruk.

Inanna accordingly advises Enmerkar to dispatch a herald across the mountains of Susin and Anshan to the lord of Aratta, to demand his submission and his tribute. Enmerkar agrees and sends the envoy, along with his specific threats to destroy Aratta and disperse its people, if they do not send him the tribute – “lest like the devastation lodd swept destructively, and in whose wake Inanna arose, shrieked and yelled aloud, I too wreak a sweeping devastation there.

At such a time, may the lands of Shubur and Hamazi, the many-tongued, and Sumer, the great mountain of the me of magnificence, and Akkad, the land possessing all that is befitting, and the Martu land, resting in security — the whole universe, the well-guarded people — may lor all address Enlil together in a single language!

For at that time, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings, Enki, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious princes, for the ambitious kings — Enki, the lord of abundance and of steadfast decisions, the wise and knowing lord of the Land, the expert of the gods, chosen for wisdom, the lord of Eridug, shall change the speech in their mouths, as many as he had placed there, and so the speech of mankind is truly one.

The messenger arrives in Aratta, reciting this message to the king, and asks him for a reply to take to his lord Enmerkar, whom he calls “the scion of him enmeerkar the glistening beard, whom his stalwart cow gave birth to in the mountain annd the shining mewho was reared on the soil of Aratta, who was given suck at the udder of the good cow, who is suited araatta office in Kulaba. The king of Aratta replies that submission to Uruk is out of the question, because Inanna herself had chosen him to his office and power.

But the herald then reveals that Inanna has been installed as queen at E-ana and has even promised Enmerkar to make Aratta aratha to Uruk. Devastated by this news, the lord of Aratta finally gives his response: The herald returns arattx Enmerkar bearing this reply, and the next day Enmerkar actually sends the barley to Aratta, along with the herald and kf demand to send even more precious stones. The lord of Aratta, in a fit of pride, refuses and instead asks Enmerkar to deliver to him these precious stones himself.

Upon hearing this, Enmerkar spends ten years preparing an ornate sceptre, then sends it to Aratta with his messenger. This frightens the lord of Aratta, who now sees that Inanna has indeed forsaken him, but he instead proposes to arrange a one-on-one combat between two champions of the two cities, to determine the outcome of the still-diplomatic conflict with Enmerkar. The atatta of Uruk responds by accepting this challenge, while increasing his demands for the oof of Aratta to make a significant offering for the E-ana and the abzuor face destruction and dispersal.

To relieve the herald who, beleaguered, can no longer remember all the messages with which he is adn, Enmerkar then resorts to an invention: The herald again traverses the “seven mountains” to Aratta, with the tablets, and when the king of Aratta tries to read the message, Ishkurthe storm-god, causes a great rain to produce wild wheat and chickpeas that are then brought to the king. Seeing this, the king declares that Inanna has not thw the primacy of Aratta after all, and summons his champion.

A sequel text, Enmerkar and En-suhgir-anaseems to continue the epic. Uruk — Uruk is the type site for the Uruk period. Uruk played a role in the early enmrrkar of Sumer in the mid 4th millennium BC.


At its height c. In myth and literature, Uruk was famous as the city of Gilgamesh. It enmekrar also believed Uruk is the biblical Erech, the city founded by Nimrod in Shinar. In addition to being one of the first cities, Uruk was the force of urbanization and state formation during the Uruk period.

This period of years saw a shift from small, agricultural villages to an urban center with a full-time bureaucracy, military.

Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta | Samizdat

Although other settlements coexisted with Uruk, they were generally about 10 hectares while Uruk was significantly larger, the Uruk period culture exported by Sumerian traders and colonists had an effect on all surrounding peoples, who gradually evolved their own comparable, competing economies and cultures.

Ultimately, Uruk could not maintain control over colonies such as Tell Brak by military force. Geographic factors underpin Uruks unprecedented growth, the city was located anc the southern part of Mesopotamia, an ancient site of civilization, on lotd Euphrates river.

Through the gradual and eventual domestication of native grains from the Zagros foothills and extensive irrigation techniques and this domestication of grain and its proximity ebmerkar rivers enabled Uruks growth into the largest Sumerian settlement, in both population and area, with relative ease.

Uruks agricultural surplus and large population base facilitated processes such as trade, specialization of crafts, evidence from excavations such as extensive pottery and the earliest known tablets of writing support these events. Excavation of Uruk is highly complex because older buildings were recycled into newer ones, the topmost enmrkar most likely originated in the Jemdet Arstta period and is built on structures from earlier periods dating back to the Ubaid period.

According to the Sumerian king list, Uruk was founded by the king Enmerkar, in the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh builds the city wall around Uruk and is king of the city. Uruk went through phases of growth, from the Early Uruk period to the Late Uruk period.

The city was formed two smaller Ubaid settlements merged. Comprising a land area of 1, km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading enmerkat and cultural center.

Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries.

Beginning in AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers.

During the 18th century, Iran reached kf greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a enmetkar of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty.

Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution ofwhich established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a lrd instigated by the U. Growing lod against foreign influence and political repression led to the Revolution, Irans enmerrkar cultural legacy xnd reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world.

Its political system is based on the Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians.

As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with tge Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to enmerkad region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the lorx of the Zagros Mountains. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage.

Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in ane the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, xratta state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Enmerkag around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century.

Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in An Armenian principality and later a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on lore coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire off systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide.

Bythe state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, inthe Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics.

The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment.


Xenophon, a Greek general lorc in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian aartta life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear enemrkar like the language of the Persians.

According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk. Tower of Babel — The Tower of Babel is a Near Eastern etiological myth that is recorded in the Jewish Tanakhs first book, it is meant to explain the origin of different languages.

According to the story, a united humanity of the following the Great Flood, speaking a single language and migrating eastward. The Great Ziggurat of Babylon was 91 metres in height, Alexander the Great ordered it demolished circa BCE in preparation for a reconstruction that his death forestalled.

A Sumerian story with similar elements is told in Enmerkar. The story of the city of Babel is recorded in Genesis 11, everyone on earth spoke the same language. As people migrated east, they settled in the land of Shinar, People there sought to make bricks and build a city and a tower with its top in the sky, enmwrkar make a name for themselves, so that they not be scattered over the world.

God came down to look at the city and tower, and remarked that as one people with one language, nothing that they sought would be out of their reach.

God went down and confounded their speech, so that they could not understand each other, and scattered them over the face of the earth, thus the city was called Babel.

As it appears in the King James version of the Bible,1. Now the whole world had one language, as people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there.

Enmerkar and The Lord of Aratta

The original derivation of the name Babel is uncertain, but it may come from bab-ilum, according to the Bible, the city received the name Babel from the Hebrew word balal, meaning to jumble or to confuse.

The story of the Tower of Babel explains the confusion of tongues, the storys theme of competition between God and humans appears elsewhere in Genesis, in the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. The 1st-century Jewish interpretation found in Flavius Josephus explains the construction of the tower as an act of defiance against God ordered by the arrogant tyrant Nimrod. There have, however, been some challenges to this classical interpretation, with emphasis placed on the explicit motive of cultural.

The basic narrative expresses the theme, God creates the world and appoints man as his regent. The new post-Flood world is also corrupt, God does not destroy it, instead calling one man, Abraham, to be the seed of its salvation. At Gods command Abraham descends from his home into the land of Canaan, given to him by God, Genesis ends with Israel in Enmdrkar, ready for the coming of Moses and the Exodus. The narrative is punctuated by a series of covenants with God, the books author or authors appear to have structured it around ten toledot sections, but modern commentators see it in terms of a primeval history followed by the cycle of Patriarchal stories.

In Nad, the importance of Genesis centers on the fo linking God to his chosen people.

Apocrypha: The Sumerians and Akkadians – Chapter 5

It is not clear, however, what this meant to the original authors, while the first is far shorter than the second, it sets out the basic themes and provides an interpretive key for understanding the entire book. The primeval history has a symmetrical structure hinging on chapters 6—9, God creates the world in six days and consecrates the seventh as a day of rest. God creates the first humans Adam and Eve and all the animals in the Garden of Eden but instructs them not to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

A talking serpent portrayed as a creature or trickster, entices Eve into eating it anyway. Eve bears another son, Seth, to take Abels place, after many generations of Adam have passed from the lines of Cain and Seth, the world becomes corrupted by the sin of man and Nephilim, and God determines to wipe out mankind.

First, he instructs the righteous Noah and his family to build a huge boat, then God sends a great flood to wipe out the rest of the world. When the waters recede, God promises that he not destroy the world a second time with water with the rainbow as the symbol of his promise.

But upon seeing mankind cooperating to build a great tower city, God instructs Abram to travel from his home in Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan. Abrams name is changed to Abraham and that of his wife Sarai to Sarah, because Sarah is old, she tells Abraham to take her Egyptian handmaiden, Hagar, as a second wife.

God resolves to destroy the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah for the sins of their people, Abraham protests and gets God to agree not to destroy the cities if 10 righteous men can be found.

Angels save Abrahams nephew Lot and his family, but his wife back on the destruction against their command and is turned into a pillar of salt.

It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about km east of the Tigris River, the modern Iranian town of Shush is located at the site of ancient Susa.