Frederick I also known as Frederick Barbarossa (Italian: Federico Barbarossa), was the Holy Otto of Freising and his continuator Rahewin, The deeds of Frederick Barbarossa tr. Charles Christopher Mierow with Richard Emery. New York. Get this from a library! The deeds of Frederick Barbarossa. [Otto, Bishop of Freising; Rahewin; Charles Christopher Mierow]. Charles Christopher Mierow, ed. The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. $ (paper), ISBN.

Author: Dutaur Tabar
Country: Liechtenstein
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Politics
Published (Last): 7 March 2008
Pages: 63
PDF File Size: 11.45 Mb
ePub File Size: 9.91 Mb
ISBN: 702-4-50416-341-7
Downloads: 86989
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Voodoolkis

Two years later, the term sacrum “holy” first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means “red beard” in Italian [2] ; in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbartwhich has the same meaning. Frederick, therefore, descended from the two leading families in Germany, making him an acceptable choice for the Empire’s prince-electors.

Historians consider him among the Holy Roman Empire’s greatest medieval emperors. He combined qualities that made him appear almost superhuman to his contemporaries: His contributions to Central European society and culture include the reestablishment of the Corpus Juris Civilisor the Roman rule of law, which counterbalanced the papal power that dominated the German states since the conclusion of the Investiture Controversy. Frederick died in in Asia Minor while leading an army in the Third Crusade.

Frederick was born in The expedition proved to be a disaster, [3] but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king.

When Conrad died in Februaryonly Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental powers, handed the royal insignia to Frederick and indicated that Frederick, rather than Conrad’s own six-year-old son, the future Frederick IV, Duke of Swabiasucceed him as king. The Hohenstaufens were often called Ghibellineswhich derives from the Italianized name for Waiblingen castle, the family seat in Swabia; the Welfs, in a similar Italianization, were called Guelfs.

The reigns of Henry IV and Henry V left the status of the German empire in disarray, its power waning under the weight fredetick the Investiture controversy. For a quarter of a barbafossa following the death of Henry Fgederick inthe German monarchy was largely a nominal title with no real power.

The royal title was furthermore passed from one family to another to preclude the development of any dynastic interest in the German crown. When Frederick I of Hohenstaufen was chosen as king inroyal power had been in effective abeyance for over twenty-five years, and to a considerable degree for batbarossa than eighty years. The only real claim to wealth lay in the rich cities of northern Italy, which were still within the nominal control of the German king.

The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa by Otto of Freising [Paperback]

The German princes refused to give the crown to his nephew, the frederic, of Swabia, for fear he would try to regain the imperial power held by Henry V. Instead, they chose Lothair III —who found himself embroiled in a long-running dispute with the Hohenstaufens, and who married into the Welfs. When Frederick Barbarossa succeeded his uncle inthere seemed to be excellent prospects for ending the feud, since he was a Welf on his mother’s side.

Barbarossa had the duchies of Swabia and Franconia, the force of his own personality, and very little else to construct an empire. The Germany that Frederick tried to unite was deedw patchwork of more than individual states, each with its own prince.

A few of these, such as Bavaria and Saxony, were large. Many were too barbarozsa to pinpoint on a map.

The deeds of Frederick Barbarossa

By the time Frederick would assume these, they were little more than propaganda slogans with little other meaning. Unlike Henry II of EnglandFrederick did not attempt to end medieval feudalism, but rather tried to restore it, though this was beyond his barbarissa. The great players in the German civil war had been the Pope, Emperor, Ghibellines, and the Guelfs, but none of these had emerged as the winner.

Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Greatthe new king saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he made lavish concessions to the nobles.

He then made a vain effort to obtain a bride from the court of Constantinople. On his accession Frederick had communicated the news of his election to Pope Eugene IIIbut had neglected to ask for the papal confirmation. In MarchFrederick concluded the treaty of Constance with the Pope, whereby he promised, in return for his coronation, to defend the papacy, to make no peace with king Roger II of Sicily or other enemies of the Church without the consent of Eugene, and to help Eugene regain control of the city of Rome.


Frederick undertook six expeditions into Italy. Obtaining the submission of Milanhe successfully besieged Tortona on 13 Februaryrazing it to the ground on 18 April. Arnold was captured and hanged for treason and rebellion. Despite his unorthodox teaching concerning theology, Arnold was not charged with heresy.

As Frederick approached the gates of Rome, the Pope advanced to meet him. At the royal tent the king received him, and after kissing the pope’s feet, Frederick expected to receive the traditional kiss of peace. The next day, Frederick, Adrian, and the German army travelled to Tivoli.

From there, a combination of the unhealthy Italian summer and the effects of his year-long absence from Germany meant he was forced to put off his planned campaign against the Normans of Sicily. At VeronaFrederick declared his fury with the rebellious Milanese before finally returning to Germany.

Disorder was again rampant in Germany, especially in Bavaria, but general peace was restored by Frederick’s vigorous, but conciliatory, measures. As part of his general policy of concessions of formal power to the German princes and ending the civil wars within the kingdom, Frederick further appeased Henry by issuing him with the Privilegium Minusgranting him unprecedented entitlements as Duke of Austria.

This was a large concession on the part of Frederick, who realized that Henry the Lion had to be accommodated, even to the point of sharing some power with him.

Frederick could not afford to make an outright enemy of Henry. In an attempt to create comity, Emperor Frederick proclaimed the Peace of the Land[26] written between andwhich enacted punishments for a variety of crimes, as well as systems for adjudicating many disputes. As a result, the issue was not resolved at that time. He also severely punished the citizens of Mainz for their rebellion against Archbishop Arnold. In Frederick’s third visit to Italy inhis plans for the conquest of Sicily were ruined by the formation of a powerful league against him, brought together mainly by opposition to imperial taxes.

The relics had great religious significance and could be counted upon to draw pilgrims from all over Christendom. Today they are kept in the Shrine of the Three Kings in the Cologne cathedral. This time, Henry the Lion refused to join Frederick on his Italian trip, tending instead to his own disputes with neighbors and his continuing expansion into Slavic territories in northeastern Germany.

Increasing anti-German sentiment swept through Lombardy, culminating in the restoration of Milan in While continental feudalism had remained strong socially and economically, it was in deep political decline by the time of Frederick Barbarossa. When the northern Italian cities inflicted a defeat on Frederick at Alessandria inthe European world was shocked.

Frederick suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Legnano near Milan, on 29 Maywhere he was wounded and for some time was believed to be dead.

The conflict was the same as that resolved in the Concordat of Worms: Did the Holy Roman Emperor have the power to name the pope and bishops? The Investiture controversy from previous centuries had been brought to a tendentious peace with the Concordat of Worms and affirmed in the First Council of the Lateran.

Now it had recurred, in a slightly different form. Also in the Peace of Venice, a truce was made with the Lombard cities, which took effect in August By this move, Frederick recovered his nominal domination over Italy, which became his chief means of applying pressure on the papacy. In a move to consolidate his reign after the disastrous expedition into Italy, Frederick was formally crowned King of Burgundy at Arles on 30 June Although traditionally the German kings had automatically inherited the royal crown of Arles since the time of Conrad IIFrederick felt the need to be crowned by the Archbishop of Arles, regardless of his laying claim to the title from Frederick did not forgive Henry the Lion for refusing to come to his aid in Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia by a court of bishops and princes indeclared that imperial law overruled traditional German law, and had Henry stripped of his lands and declared an outlaw.

Henry’s allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit to Frederick at an Imperial Diet in Erfurt in November He finished his days in Germany, as the much-diminished Duke of Brunswick. Henry the Lion lived a relatively quiet life, sponsoring arts and architecture. Frederick’s victory over Henry did not gain him as much in the German feudalistic system as it would have in the English feudalistic system. While in England the pledge of fealty went in a direct line from overlords to those under them, the Germans pledged oaths only to the direct overlord, so that in Henry’s case, those below him in the feudal chain owed nothing to Frederick.


Thus, despite the diminished stature of Henry the Lion, Frederick did not gain his allegiances. Frederick was faced with the reality of disorder among the German states, where continuous civil wars were waged between pretenders and the ambitious who wanted the crown for themselves. Italian unity under German rule was more myth than truth. Despite proclamations of German hegemony, the pope was the most powerful force in Italy.

The German princes, far from being subordinated to royal control, were intensifying their hold on wealth and power in Germany and entrenching their positions. There began to be a generalized social desire to “create greater Germany” by conquering the Slavs to the east. Although the Italian city states had achieved a measure of independence from Frederick as a result of his failed fifth expedition into Italy, [67] the emperor had not given up on his Italian dominions.

Inhe held a massive celebration when his two eldest sons were knighted, and thousands of knights were invited from all over Germany.

While payments upon the knighting of a son were part of the expectations of an overlord in England and France, only a “gift” was given in Germany for such an occasion. Frederick’s monetary gain from this celebration is said to have been modest. After making his peace with the new pope, Frederick vowed to take up the cross at the Diet of Mainz in According to one source written in the s, Frederick organized a grand army ofmen including 20, knights and set out on the overland route to the Holy Land; [71] [72] Some historians believe that this is an exaggeration, however, and use other contemporary sources to estimate an army of 12,—15, men, including 3,—4, knights.

The Crusaders passed through HungarySerbiaand Bulgaria before entering Byzantine territory and arriving at Constantinople in the autumn of Matters were complicated by a secret alliance between the Emperor of Constantinople and Saladin, warning of which was supplied by a note from Sibyllaex-Queen of Jerusalem.

The armies coming from western Europe pushed on through Anatoliawhere they were victorious in taking Aksehir and defeating the Turks in the Battle of Iconiumand entered Cilician Armenia. Frederick was thrown from his horse and the shock of the cold water caused him to have a heart attack.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

Weighed down by his armour, he drowned in water that was barely hip-deep, according to the chronicler Ibn al-Athir. Frederick’s death caused several thousand German soldiers to leave the force and return home through the Cilician and Syrian ports.

Hence, his flesh was interred in the Church of St Peter in Antioch, his bones in the cathedral of Tyreand his heart and inner organs in Tarsus. The unexpected demise of Frederick left the Crusader army under the command of the rivals Philip II and Richard, who had traveled to Palestine separately by sea, and ultimately led to its dissolution.

Richard continued to the East where he fought Saladin, winning territories along the shores of Palestine, but ultimately failed to win the war by conquering Jerusalem itself before he was forced to return to his own territories in north-western Europe, known as the Angevin Empire. He returned home after he signed the Treaty of Ramla agreeing that Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control while allowing unarmed Christian pilgrims and traders to visit the city.

The treaty also reduced the Latin Kingdom to a geopolitical coastal strip extending from Tyre to Jaffa. The increase in wealth of the trading cities of northern Italy led to a revival in the study of the Justinian Codea Latin legal system that had become extinct centuries earlier. Legal scholars renewed its application.

By the time Frederick assumed the throne, this legal system was well established on both sides of the Alps. He was the first to utilize the availability of the new professional class of lawyers.