Senso has 99 ratings and 9 reviews. Anastasia said: Η Λίβια μία νεαρή γυναίκα , παντρεμένη με τον Κόμη που ήταν πολλές δεκαετίες μεγαλύτερός της, χαμένη. Author: Camillo Boito Outside Italy Luchino Visconti’s film of ‘Senso ‘, which brilliantly captured the ambience and atmosphere of the novella. Camillo Boito wrote Senso in , when the Risorgimento, despite its many faults and failures, had succeeded in the unification of the Italian peninsula into a .

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The two modes of derivation – or better, of transmodalization – to which he refers are camullo and narrativizationdefined as “alteration[s] in the mode of presentation characterizing the hypotext.

Colin Partridge wrote that “[i]n when Luchino Visconti began work on a film version of Senso he was adapting a text which, although recently reprinted, was unknown to an international readership and little known to the majority of Italians. Hence, when Tinto Brass worked on a second filmic adaptation of the same novella inhe inevitably positioned his Senso 45 in a relationship of textual transcendence with both the work of Boito and Visconti.

This relationship is not simply that of hypertextuality – that Genette defines “any relationship uniting a text B [. The doubling camilpo re-writings of the novella expands even further the spectrum of the critical discourse and allows for the exploration of unforeseen avenues that, once submitted to a rigorous process of designation and contextualization, can yield interesting insights on the works in question on two major levels: Although Camillo Boito was never formally a member of the Scapigliati group, their perspective on life, their investigations in the duality of biito behavior, their fascination with moral and physical decay, and their images of violence and death reverberate in his literature.

As Colin Patridge writes, the Scapigliati “rejected a literary xenso dedicated to evoking ecstatic imponderables such as spirit, obito and sublimity. Instead they focused on the human body and the physical world. These they saw as providing a factual basis in reality and were the one source of beauty, fulfillment, human happiness. Conversely, the Scapigliati pessimistically maintained that “[a]dversity invariably prevailed and sensp struggled amidst destruction, decay and disillusion,” [8] and that “[i]n this dualistic process, humanity was always subject to some colossal betrayal; and hope, the source of illusions, was the most cruel betrayer in a universe manipulated by incessant and inescapable treacheries.

Camillo Boito wrote Senso inwhen the Risorgimento, despite its many faults and failures, had succeeded in the unification of caillo Italian peninsula into a single nation-state, and most of the Scapigliati had passed away. The family traveled together between Italy and Poland, until in the Countess returned to her homeland and left her husband and two sons, Camillo and Arrigo, in the Caimllo city of Venice.

Camillo fled the occupied city in and settled in Milan where he stayed until his death in Leopold von Sacher-Masoch published Venus in Furs in Despite the obvious differences, these authors also have some common features that are particularly relevant to the topic at hand: In addition, they both cakillo of supersensual characters whose stories take place, at least partially, in the heterocosms of two major Italian cities, Venice and Florence.

Commentators seem to dismiss far too hastily a reading of the tormented affair of Countess Livia with Lieutenant Ruz in the light of Sacher-Masoch perhaps because the gender configuration is reversed, the woman being the masochist and the man the camilllo.

Clotilde Bertoni writes that “these allusions, more than suggesting a sadomasochistic configuration of the liaison, tend to accentuate the stripping of the plot from conventional embellishments, they illuminate that scandalous potential of sensuality, which is able to avalanche over the conventions and pierce the moral parameters. In order for the masochist to liberate such tensions in the context of a love relationship, an elaborate combination camiolo circumstances, all of which are prescriptive and entangled, needs to be set up.

With variation and qualification, the affairs depicted in Senso and Venus in Furs share the essential traits of a masochist scenario:. The necessary prerequisite for the enactment of masochistic rituals is the participation of supersensual characters: In the first pages of her scartafaccioher discontinuous journal, Livia writes: I knew nothing about the history of its buildings; I understood little of their beauty. They attracted me less than the green water, the starry sky, the silvery moon, the golden sunsets; and I especially loved lying stretched out at ease in a black gondola letting my imagination roam in voluptuous fantasies.

I too am supersensual, madam, just as they were.

Once they are established as such, the supersensual characters seek a partner with whom they engage in the masochistic rituals: In the words of Deleuze, the masochist is a “victim in search of a torturer and who needs to educate, persuade and conclude an alliance with the torturer in order to realize the strangest of schemes.


She has come to life for my benefit like Pygmalion’s statue. Deleuze write that “the contract presupposes in principle the free consent of the contracting parties and determines between them a system of reciprocal rights and duties; it cannot affect a third party and is valid for a limited period. Once it is “signed” it ties the characters to one another, and its validity ends only when the trajectory of the masochist ends in his or her transformation into a sadist: Livia “You’ll always love me?

You’ll always be faithful to me? You won’t look at any other woman? Will you swear that to me? But there’s very little time.

Senso and Other Stories

And I need those two thousand five hundred florins. It is necessary to disenfranchise the notion of masochism from facile associations with abased sexual perversions. Deleuze wrote that “the masochist is not a strange being who finds pleasure in pain, but [. In Livia’s inner world the entanglement of pleasure and pain is elevated to existential investigation: I fear nothing from my soul-searching; in my abasement there is courage. He used to hold me by the waist in an iron grip and bite my shoulders until they bled.

When she is about to discover Remigio’s betrayal, she writes: Venus in Furs is the celebration of the marriage of love and violence: The distinctive traits of this brand of sexual encounter can be summarized as follows: The camill qualities that the masochist values in the torturer are obviously deviant from the standards of Judeo-Christian ethics and the mores of western societies.

Deleuze writes that “[w]hat characterizes masochism and its theatricality is a peculiar form of cruelty in the woman torturer: His insincerity, dishonesty, unsubtlety and imprudence appeared to me as signs of a hidden but powerful force before which I was happy, indeed proud, to bend like a slave. The more contemptible his personal qualities, the more splendidly his body glowed with beauty.

But no half-measures; if you cannot be a true and loyal wife, then be a denso The trajectory of a masochist ends in sadism: What triggers the resolution of the contract and its liberation from his former enslavement is the incorporation in the narrative of a character named The Greek, whom is voito by Wands the power of the whip. This is the recollection of the crucial moment: Both Senso and Venus in Furs are structured with first person singular narration and a framework.

Senso – Wikipedia

In Sacher-Masoch, the framework is a conversation between Severin and an unnamed friend who dreams of encountering Venus in Furs himself.

Severin tries to dissuade him by giving him the manuscript of his memoirs where his misadventures with Wanda are narrated. In Boito’s novella, the voice in the framework of the scartafaccio is still Livia’s, although it is displaced temporally of sixteen years.

Both the characters are bitter and disillusioned and entertain relationships with minor characters that they titillate, subjugating them to their moral and physical tortures and abuses. From this schematic structural comparison, it is apperent that the relationship between Venus in Furs and Senso is deeper and much more complex than the commentators have been willing to admit.

However, it is clear that Senso reenacts many tropes that establish an archetypal masochistic scenario, including some minor ones. For instance, they both rely on the notion of spatial displacement, of the sensual voyage: Maintaining the existence of a relationship of textual transcendence between these two works also implies that Senso ‘s hypertexts might, to a stronger or lesser degree, retain some of the tropes highlighted and described here.

Despite being based on the same novella, Luchino Visconti’s Senso and Tinto Brass’s Senso 45 are born under the star of neighboring, yet almost opposite, visual references. For the imagery of his adaptation Visconti recurred to the Venetian painter Francensco Hayez. His style was formed under the influence of neoclassicism, which is still palpable in his paintings despite their thematic romanticism.

Although considerably older than Boito, Hayez lived throughout the events the Risorgimento, and it is not unreasonable to think that Boito might have been aware of the paintings of his fellow countryman. In one of the most celebrated tableaux-vivants in the history of Italian cinema and perhaps in world cinemaVisconti frames Countess Serpieri and Lieutenant Mahler in the reenactment of Hayez’s Il Bacio ‘The Kiss’ – Fig. Il Bacio is regarded as the quintessential embodiment of Italian Romanticism in figurative arts because of the medieval setting that can be extrapolated from the clothes of the lovers, which recalls images of celebrated lovers, from Romeo and Juliet to Paolo and Francesca.

Visconti’s choice of incorporating this particular painting in the narrative of his film visualizes Livia’s psychology in a crucial moment in the narrative.

In Livia’s inner world Franz is an idealized romantic hero who risked his life on the eve of a conflict traveling at nighttime in order to reunite with her in the villa in Aldeno. Conversely, Brass recurred to much less romanticized icons of love: Rops was born in Namur, Belgium, in where he studies and lived untilwhen he moved to the cosmopolitan Brussels.


After he completed his studies, he worked between his hometown, the capital, and Paris. He acquainted with Charles Baudelaire in and realized the frontispiece for the first edition of the Epavesthe poems that Baudelaire had to remove from The Flowers of Evil. Rops spent most of his adult life traveling and drawing all over Europe and North America, and he collaborated with the most celebrated French authors of the period until he died in The work of Rops had a strong influence on the German-American expressionist George Groszwhose erotic drawings provide Brass with another source of imagery that, in a transtextual relation with Visconti, he transforms into tableaux-vivants in the long orgy scene.

During one of their private outings Livia and Lieutenant Schulz visit a Jewish antiquary who, because of the anti-Semitism of the Fascist regime, converted to Catholicism. The German officer pulls out a leather portfolio that contains some of Grosz’s drawings and the antiquary, intrigued, buys them.

In the back wall of the cluttered store hangs Pornokrates, who supervises the transaction in her lusty and aristocratic detachment. The literalization of the iconographic quotation represented by the use of the tableaux-vivant in both the filmic adaptations of the novella seems to substantiate the reading of a masochistic intertext in it. As Deleuze writes, “[t]he scenes in Masoch have of necessity a frozen quality, like statues or portraits; they are replicas of works of art, or else they duplicate themselves in mirrors.

The second relies on the dynamic quality that is intrinsic in the works of art that he chooses to imitate: Pornokrates is walking her pig while the Grosz’s figurines are engaged in frantic sexual activity. Both the directors make an elaborate use of mirror shots that only to some extent are actually functional to the narration.

S Senso (and Other Stories)

If in the opening sequence camillk Senso Visconti utilizes the large mirror in the theatre-box in order to frame boiot the characters frontally together with part of the stage, in the Aldeno sequence the use of the toilet-table mirror does not seem to have any functional quality.

Brass makes a creative use of mirror shots in all his films, and Senso 45 makes no exception. This is not to say that they have any purpose other than furthering the spectacularization of the female body and enriching the frame with details and sometimes even enlargements. In their filmic adaptations of Boito’s novella, both Visconti and Brass made significant changes and alterations to the original, according to their respective goals.

On the one hand, it is widely acknowledged by the commentators that Visconti was interested in transforming the novella into an allegory for the socio-political scene of World War II, and for this reason he amplified the few references to the Risorgimento: In his Senso history moves from the background to the foreground and intertwines with the masochistic melodrama to deliver not only the facts but also his reading of them in the light of Gramsci.

On the other hand, Brass reworked the text and emphasized the erotic qualities of it, bolto it with the imagery of Rops and Grasz but also including several references to the iconography of Italian Cinema. By setting his Senso 45 in German-occupied Venice, Brass allowed his film to naturally incorporate the Neorealist experience that blossomed with Visconti’s Ossessione and ripened in the years that followed.

The acknowledgment of his sources is reworked in two sequences that establish a relationship of textual transcendence with both the aforementioned film and Rossellini’s Rome Open City However, if the latter is simply reenacted, and its use is marginalized in the flow of the narrative, the Ossessione is integrated in a scene that revels in its transtextuality: On the soundtrack, Bragana – the cuckolded husband in Ossessione – is heard singing.

A stout, bearded man enters the theatre and shoots the lovers.

After having declared that with the murderous crime he rescued his honor, he points the gun at his temple and fires it. A cutting board ironically reveals that the highly staged scene belongs to yet another film, the apocryphal Tradimento directed by Flavio Calzavara, a director who collaborated with the Fascist regime -played by Boigo Brass himself.

Both Visconti and Brass, in their respective adaptations, made significant alterations and additions to the characters’ background, psychology, motivations, and narrative function. In Boito’s novella the Countess is from Trento, at the time complacently part of the Austrian empire, where she resides swnso her husband.