Um Apontamento Critico ao Behaviorismo Radical de B. F. Skinner (Portuguese Edition) [Daniel Grandinetti] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying. Veja grátis o arquivo B. F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior enviado para a disciplina de Behaviorismo Radical Categoria: Outros – 5 – Consciência e propósito no behaviorismo radical. Chapter (PDF Intencionalidade e linguagem: algumas considerações sobre Tomasello e Skinner. Article.
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Skinner: Behaviorismo Radical
Enviado por Jacyanne flag Denunciar. Naturally, this terminological revision adds no objectivity to the familiar mentalistic mode of description.
IV The other fundamental notion borrowed from the description of bar-pressing experiments is reinforcement. It raises problems which are similar, and even more serious.
In Behavior skinnee Organisms, “the operation of reinforcement is defined as the presentation of a certain kind of stimulus in a temporal relation with either a stimulus or response.
A reinforcing stimulus is defined as such by its power to produce the resulting change [in strength].
There is no circularity about this: This is a perfectly appropriate definition12 for the study of schedules of reinforcement. It is perfectly useless, however, in the discussion of real-life behavior, unless we can somehow characterize the stimuli which are reinforcing and the situations and conditions under which they are reinforcing.
Consider first of all the status of the basic principle that Skinner calls the “law of conditioning” law of effect. As reinforcement was defined, this law becomes a tautology.
Skinner does make it very clear that in his view reinforcement is a necessary condition for language learning and for the continued availability of linguistic responses in the adult. Examining the instances of what Skinner calls radicxl, we find that not even the requirement that a reinforcer be an identifiable stimulus is taken seriously. In fact, the term is used in such a way that the assertion that reinforcement is necessary for learning and continued availability of behavior is likewise empty.
To show this, we behaviorjsmo some examples of reinforcement.
First of all, we find a heavy appeal to automatic self-reinforcement, Thus, “a man talks to himself Just as the musician plays or composes what he is reinforced by hearing, or sknner the artist paints rasical reinforces him visually, so the speaker engaged in verbal fantasy says what he is reinforced by hearing or writes what he is reinforced by reading” ; similarly, care in problem solving, and rationalization, are automatically self-reinforcing We can also reinforce someone by emitting behaviofismo behavior as such since this rules out a class of aversive stimulations,by not behqviorismo verbal behavior keeping silent and paying attention,or by acting appropriately on some future occasion In most such cases, of course, the speaker is not present at the time when the reinforcement takes place, as when “the artist The writer may not be reinforced often or immediately, but his net reinforcement may be great” ; this accounts for the great “strength” of his behavior.
An individual may also find it reinforcing to injure someone by criticism or by bringing bad news, or to publish an experimental result which upsets the theory of a rivalto describe circumstances which would behqviorismo reinforcing if they were to radicakto avoid repetitionto “hear” his own name though in fact it was not mentioned or to hear nonexistent words in his child’s babblingto clarify or otherwise intensify the effect of a stimulus which serves an important discriminative functionand so on.
From this sample, it can be seen that the notion of reinforcement has totally lost whatever objective meaning it may ever have had.
A concepção de Homem no Behaviorismo Radical de Skinner: um compromisso com o bem da cultura.
Running through these examples, we see that a person can be reinforced though he emits no response at all, and that the reinforcing stimulus need not impinge on the reinforced person or need not even exist it is sufficient that it be imagined or hoped for.
When we behaviofismo that a person plays what music he behaviprismosays what he likes gadical, thinks what he likesreads what books he likesetc. The phrase “X is reinforced by Y stimulus, state of affairs, event, etc.
Invoking the term reinforcement has no explanatory force, and any idea that this paraphrase introduces any new clarity or objectivity behaviprismo the description of wishing, liking, etc. The only effect is to obscure the important differences among the notions being paraphrased. Once we recognize the latitude with which the term reinforcement is being used, many rather startling comments lose their initial effect — for instance, that the behavior of the creative artist is “controlled entirely by the contingencies of reinforcement” What has been hoped for from the psychologist is some indication how the casual and informal description of everyday behavior in the popular vocabulary can be explained or clarified in terms of the notions developed in careful experiment and observation, or perhaps replaced in terms of a better scheme.
A mere terminological revision, in which a term borrowed from the laboratory is used with the full vagueness skinneg the ordinary vocabulary, is of no conceivable interest. It seems that Skinner’s claim that all verbal behavior is acquired and maintained in “strength” through reinforcement is quite empty, because his notion of reinforcement has no clear content, functioning only as a cover term for any factor, detectable or not, related to acquisition or maintenance of verbal behavior.
Pavlovian and operant conditioning are processes about which psychologists have developed real understanding. Instruction of human beings is not.