STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR HEAT OF COMBUSTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUELS BY BOMB CALORIMETER. This test method. The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel. ASTM D Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter.
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This test method covers the determination of the heat of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels ranging in volatility from that of light distillates to that of residual fuels.
Under normal conditions, this test method is directly applicable to such fuels as gasoline, kerosene, Nos. This test method is not repeatable and not as reproducible as Test Method D The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parenthesis are for information only.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Gross Heat of Combustion – the quantity of energy released when a unit mass of fuel is burned in a constant volume enclosure, with the products being gaseous, other than water that is condensed to the liquid state.
Discussion – The fuel can be either liquid or solid, and contain only the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
The products of combustion, in oxygen, are gaseous carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and liquid water. Net Heat of Combustion – the quantity of energy released when a unit mass of fuel is burned asm constant pressure, with all of the products, including water, being gaseous.
Discussion – The fuel can be either liquid or solid, and contain only the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. The products of combustion, in oxygen, are carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and water, all in the gaseous state. In this procedure, the combustion takes place at a constant pressure of 0. Heat of combustion is determined in this test method by burning a weighed sample in an oxygen bomb calorimeter under controlled conditions.
The heat of combustion is d2440 from temperature observations before, during and after combustion, with proper allowance for thermochemical and heat transfer corrections. Either isothermal or adiabatic calorimeter jackets can be used.
Koehler K / K Bomb-type Calorimeter (ASTM D, D, D, D, D) | Labequip
Astn can be measured in degrees Celsius. Temperatures can be recorded in either degrees Fahrenheit or ohms or other units when using electric thermometers. Use the same units in all calculations, including standardization. Time is expressed in calculations in minutes and decimal fractions thereof. It may be measured in minutes and seconds.
Masses are measured in grams and no buoyancy corrections are applied. The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel.
A knowledge of this value is essential when considering the thermal efficiency of equipment for d2400 either power or heat. The heat of combustion as determined by this test method is designated as one of the chemical and physical requirements of both commercial and military turbine fuels and aviation gasoline.
The mass heat of combustion, the heat of combustion per unit mass of fuel, is a critical property of fuels intended for use in weight-limited craft such as airplanes, astj effect vehicles, and hydrofoils. The range of such craft between refueling is a d420 function of the heat of combustion and density of the fuel. Test Room – The room in wstm the calorimeter is operated must be free from drafts and not subject to sudden temperature changes.
The direct rays of the sun shall not strike the jacket or thermometers. Adequate facilities for lighting, heating, and ventilating shall be provided.
ASTM D – International Standards
Thermostatic control of room temperature and controlled relative humidity are desirable. All parts are to be constructed of materials which are not affected by the combustion process or products sufficiently to introduce measurable heat input or alteration of end products. If the bomb is lined with platinum or gold, all openings shall be sealed to prevent combustion products from reaching the base metal.
The bomb must be designed so that all liquid combustion products can be completely recovered by washing the inner surfaces. There must be no gas leakage during a test. The bomb must be capable of withstanding a hydrostatic pressure test to a gauge pressure of psi 20MPa at room temperature, without stressing any part beyond its elastic limit.
Calorimeter – The calorimeter vessel shall be made of metal preferably copper or brass with a tarnish-resistant coating, and with all outer surfaces highly polished. Its size shall be such that the bomb will be completely immersed in water when the calorimeter is assembled. It shall have a device for stirring the water thoroughly and at a uniform rate, but with minimum heat input. Continuous stirring for 10 min shall not raise the calorimeter temperature more than 0.
The immersed portion of the stirrer shall be coupled asrm the outside through a material of low heat conductivity. Jacket – The calorimeter shall be completely enclosed within a stirred water jacket and supported so that its sides, top, and bottom are approximately 10mm from the jacket wall. The jacket can be arranged so as to remain substantially constant temperature, or with provision for rapidly adjusting the jacket temperature to equal that of the calorimeter for adiabatic operation.
It must be constructed so that any water evaporating from the jacket will not condense on the calorimeter. The same ambient conditions must be maintained for all experiments, including standardization. Thermometers – Temperatures in the calorimeter and jacket shall be measured with the following thermometers or combinations thereof:. Each of these thermometers shall have been tested for accuracy at intervals no larger than 2. Corrections shall be reported to 0. Each of these thermometers shall be tested for accuracy r240 intervals no larger than 1C over the entire graduated scale and corrections reported to 0.
Thermometer Accessories – A magnifier is required for reading liquid-in-glass thermometers to one tenth of the smallest scale division. This shall have a lens and holder designed so as not to introduce significant errors due to parallax. A Wheatstone bridge and galvanometer capable of measuring resistance of 0.
Timing Device – A watch or other device capable of measuring time to 1s is required for use with the isothermal jacket calorimeter. Sample Holder – Nonvolatile samples shall be burned in an open crucible of platinum preferredquartz or acceptable base metal alloy.
Base metal alloy crucibles are acceptable if after a few preliminary firings the weight does not change significantly between tests.
Firing Wire – Use a mm length of No. Shorter lengths may be asrm if the same length is employed in all tests, including standardization tests. Platinum wire may be used if the ignition energy is small en reproducible. Firing Circuit – A 6 to 16V alternating current is required for ignition purposes with an ammeter or pilot light in the circuit to indicate when current is flowing.
Oxygen Dd240 Device – Commercial oxygen produced form liquid air can generally be used without purification. Benzoic Acid, Standard – Benzoic acid powder must be compressed into a tablet or pellet before weighing. Benzoic acid pellets for which the heat of combustion has been determined by comparison with the National Bureau of Standards sample are obtainable commercially for those laboratories not equipped to pellet benzoic acid.
Oxygen – Commercial oxygen produced from liquid air can be used without purification. If purification is necessary, see A1.
Pressure-Sensitive Tape – Cellophane tape 38mm 1. Sodium Hydrozide Solution – Dissolve 3. Standardize with potassium acid phthalate and adjust to 0.
Can cause severe burns or blindness. Evolution of heat produces asm violent reaction or eruption upon too rapid mixture with water. Sodium Carbonate Solution – Dissolve 3. Vapors may cause flash fire. Determine the Energy Equivalent of the Calorimeter – average not less than six tests using standard asttm acid.
These tests should be spaced over a period of not less than three days. Use not less than 0. Make each determination according to the procedure described in Section 9 and compute the corrected temperature e240. Determine the corrections for nitric acid HNO3 and firing wire as described and substitute.
Repeat the standardization tests after changing any part of the calorimeter and occasionally as a check on both calorimeter an operating atsm. Checking the Calorimeter for Use with Volatile Fuels – Use 2,2,4-trimethylpentane to determine whether the results obtained agree with the certified value If results do not come within this range, the technique of handling the sample may have to be changed.
ASTM D240-09 – International Standards
If this is not possible or does not correct the error, run a series of tests using 2,2,4-trimethylpentane to establish the energy equivalent for use with volatile fuels. Weight of Sample – Control the weight of sample including the auxiliary fuel so that the temperature rise produced by its combustion will be equal to that f240 0. Weigh the sample to the nearest 0. Some fuels contain water and particulate matter ash that will degrade calorimetric values. If the heat of combustion is required on a clean fuel, filter the sample to remove free water and insoluble ash before testing.
Tape d204 place a piece of pressure-sensitive tape across the top of the cup, trim around the edge with a razor blade, and seal tightly. Place a 3mm by 12mm strip of tape creased in the middle and sealed by one edge in the center of the tape disk to give a flap arrangement.
Weigh the cup and tape. Remove from the balance with forceps. Fill a hypodermic syringe with the sample. Add the sample to the cup by inserting the tip of the needle through the tap disk at a point so that the flap of tape will cover the puncture upon removal of the needle.
Seal down the flap aztm pressing lightly with a metal spatula. Reweigh the cup with the tape and sample. Take care throughout the weighing and filling operation to avoid contacting the tape or cup with bare fingers.
Place the cup in the curved electrode and arrange the fuse wire so that the central portion of the loop presses down on the center of the tape disk. The capsule should only be handled with forceps. Add the sample to the capsule.
Reweigh the cup with capsule and sample. If poor combustion is expected with the capsule, add several drops of mineral oil on the capsule and reweigh the cup and contents.