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Post by Daniel N. In total approximately 20 million people worldwide are native speakers of these standard languages which are most closely related to Slovenian, Macedonian and Bulgarian and less so to other Slavonic languages such as Russian, Ukrainian, Polish and Czech.

Before dngleski, the label, “Serbo-Croatian” was the prevailing label in engkeski English-speaking world. However the current nomenclature reflects an explicit link between language and national identity held by language planners in Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia regardless of the standard languages’ common derivation from a particular sub-dialect in the recent past.

As is the case in Eastern Europe, ESL teaching is widespread and many young adults and teenagers speak at least some English.

Italian is also known to varying degrees among Croats living along the Adriatic coast while in northern Serbia one can sometimes hear Hungarian and Slovak thanks to the presence there of Hungarian and Slovak minorities respectively. The differences between them are quite subtle and do not often hinder understanding or can at times even be imperceptible to native speakers.

Moreover, the differences in linguistic features do not match the geographical divisions in the area because of natural migration and forced eviction of people throughout the history entleski the Balkans. In this way, it is possible to rely on only one standard language from Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin or Serbian and sr;sko able to communicate ehgleski and seamlessly with all educated natives of Bosnia and Srspko, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.

In cases where speakers would feel srpskko their words would be unclear, they would use a term which is considered to be better understood. For learners accustomed to or fluent in pluricentric languages such as English, German, Portuguese or Spanish, they may find it socially beneficial to be aware of characteristics, words or structures prescribed or occurring most frequently in the respective standard languages. The native dialects of Croats can be broadly classified into three groups: The second-most prevalent one is Kajkavski and spoken in northwestern Croatia including the capital, Zagreb.

There is another set of variations that the learner may encounter egnleski corresponds partially to the national standards. The vowel evolved into ei je or i starting no later than the Middle Ages. Ikavski dialects are also spoken in parts of Croatia sr;sko Bosnia. The variations are interesting from a linguist’s viewpoint but are a headache for politicians and nationalists who try to identify or settle territorial disputes and ethnic eng,eski using linguistic criteria.

When one notes the engoeski used by Bosnians, Croats, Montenegrins and Serbs one can also notice that Bosnians and Croats tend to prefer certain usages over ones used in Montenegro and Serbia, while on the other hand Bosnians, Montenegrin and Serbs prefer certain usages over those used in Croatia. It can be bewildering to a foreigner who tries to learn the nonstandard speech engledki natives. Learning with a background in other languages According to FSI, it takes approximately class hours to achieve professional speaking and reading proficiency in Bosnian, Croatian or Serbian.

To this one can add Montenegrin. For speakers of English, the greatest difficulties in my opinion are: The last point refers to the fact that all learners should be aware of some of the prescriptions or tendencies that distinguish the standard languages from each other.

This is attributable to the sometimes high sensitivity among some native speakers on the matter caused by the politicization of language and the presence of natively-produced dictionaries and grammar manuals which emphasize the characteristics, expressions, words or tendencies that distinguish the standard srrpsko even if they do not reduce mutual intelligibility to a significant degree. Frequency for using the infinitive in Bosnia and Herzegovina falls between the levels observed in the other countries.

The addition of new letters in the Montenegrin alphabet sprsko been criticized as politically-motivated since the sounds represented by the new letters of the Montenegrin alphabet are not observed reliably among Montenegrins and could have been expressed visually without modification of the existing alphabets.


Standard Montenegrin and standard Serbian prescribe that the final —ti in the infinitive be elided and then combined with assomil future marker. Standard Bosnian officially prescribes that either treatment is correct.

Such questions among Montenegrins and Serbs are more often constructed by placing Da li before the main verb at the head of the sentence. Bosnians use both versions without a marked preference. Words of demonstrably Slavonic origin that differ either in spelling or in form have ended up being used by the variants to express the same concept or object.

This also means that vowels can be long or short. Sometimes, stress with pitch-accent will distinguish different forms or words: Especially perceptive students may also note that some of the distinctions in pitch-accent have faded among many Croats and Serbs outside very careful speech.

In general, educated Bosnians are now most likely to speak in a way that is closest to descriptions in standard textbooks on BCMS with all of the prescribed srpeko in stress and pitch-accent. Grammarians usually identify seven cases for nouns and adjectives: However the endings for dative and locative have almost totally merged and it may srpsjo helpful for beginners not to make a big deal of the distinction between locative and dative i.

There are two numbers: There are three ssrpsko However, the last is used in asssimil literature and rarely heard in speech. The brevity of aorist and imperfect forms compared to those in past tense have made them useful in instant messaging and SMS. There are two verbal aspects: This means that most actions are expressed with an imperfective and a corresponding perfective verb. Syntax is usually subject-verb-object but this can change depending on the focus or nuance that a speaker wishes to convey.

Thus, syntax srpsmo be rather flexible compared to English as much of the relevant grammatical information of a sentence is revealed in the inflections, suffixes and prefixes of the words.

Adjectives precede and agree with the nouns that they describe E. Latin and Old Church Slavonic loanwords are also present because of the influence of Roman Catholicism and Orthodox Christianity respectively. The distribution or incorporation of srpxko isn’t uniform as standard Croatian tends to have more neologisms or calques in place of borrowings whereas the other standard languages tend to have fewer neologisms or enhleski.

However when loanwords appear in any of the standards, there is a tendency for Croatian prescriptions to be more tolerant toward loanwords or constructions of Latin, Hungarian, Germanic, Greek or Western Slavonic origin, while Bosnian ones are most likely to incorporate elements of Arabic, Iranic or Turkish origin.

Montenegrin and Serbian lexicons are more likely to contain words or expressions that entered as borrowings from Greek, Old Church Slavonic, Russian and Turkish. These preferences illustrate the perceptions of the planners who wish to associate certain cultures or civilizations with their own cultures using the composition of the word stock.

In addition a modified Cyrillic alphabet is used with the Bosnian, Montenegrin and Serbian standards.

In practice, however, Bosnian is rarely expressed in Cyrillic, while usage of Cyrillic in Montenegro and Serbia is less common outside rural areas. This is unlike the case of the Eastern Slavonic languages which show this development only when the ancestral syllable had rising srpsjo accent, and then only when it was the initial syllable.

Otherwise this last set of languages is now often marked by a vowel preceding and following the liquid. The first development is in common with that of the other Southern Slavonic languages, while the latter is in common with that of the Eastern Slavonic languages, Slovak, and to a lesser extent with Czech and Sorbian.

The Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and one of the Serbian codifications are such that the reflexes are je or ije. A second Serbian codification is such that the reflex is e. Some subdialects srpsmo the former Yugoslavia also show a reflex of i. The development of e kavian coincides to a greater or lesser degree with a similar trend in Belorussian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Slovak and Slovenian. The development of i kavian coincides to aesimil extent with a similar trend in Ukrainian. The reflex of i je has no neat parallel in the other Slavonic languages.

The degree of syncretism is much more pronounced than in the other Slavonic languages apart from Bulgarian and Macedonian, and is clearest in the declension of adjectives. Last edited by Chung on Sun Apr 10, 5: Epic poetry is particularly zrpsko in Montenegrin and Serbian culture for it provided touchstones in the later establishment of national identity. For Serbs, epic poetry kept alive the memory of the Battle of Kosovo of between Serbs and Turks and later provided the corpus for codifying modern standard Serbian.


Among the individual cultures, learners can occupy themselves by exploring writers who are renowned among each of the nations using BCMS. Musical traditions in the former Yugoslavia englrski back at least to traditions of religious hymns in Old Church Slavonic assimio the Early Middle Ages. Nowadays each of the Envleski, Croats, Montenegrins and Serbs have musical traditions and a learner can certainly enhance the learning experience by taking in songs in BCMS. Some distinctive styles to look for are Croatian groups of klapa a form of a capella singingBosnian sevdalinka which are reminiscient of blues, and Serbian turbo-folk which is either reviled or loved because of its hybrid folk-rock-pop-dance nature and lyrics with overtones of sex, material wealth and violence.

Rock, metal, pop, dance, hip-hop and rap are also represented by artists from Zrpsko and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia. Learning material i Books Learning materials for foreigners nowadays accommodate the sociolinguistic conclusion that BCMS are separate entities worthy of designated materials.

It also comes with exercises for each chapter and answers at the back of the book. In the interest of keeping lively dialogues, it’s natural that the language used would have relatively complex structures for a beginner and some idioms. The grammar section of each chapter would focus on the grammatical assimul of each set of dialogues. It would have been desirable if the textbook had included more exercises.

Transcripts of dialogues and vocabulary is printed srsko both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets with entire chapters alternating regularly between the scripts after the third chapter.

They also come with exercises for each chapter. One frustrating problem is that only about a third of the exercises have answers at the back of the book. Another problem is that the glossaries at the back of the books are inadequate and only some of the dialogues have complete lists srpskl new vocabulary. All of this is very surprising for kits that are sold as self-instructional courses. The dialogues are also available online from the audio archive at Indiana University. It has thirty chapters and each chapter begins with either a dialogue or descriptive text.

In some chapters there are interesting if sometimes obsolete notes on culture and geography as well as jokes and songs. Each chapter has four or five groups of exercises ranging from translation to fill-in-the-blank to writing englrski paragraphs on various themes. There is also a short chapter devoted to texts in Croatian and Serbian in Cyrillic and Latin alphabets and are meant to srsko practice in reading formal language.

As such, one would have to flip back and forth between the chapter’s text and the relevant grammar.

Eugène Ionesco

I found this to be rather frustrating and I often ended up referring to the index in order to find the explanation to the grammar that was relevant to the chapters’ respective dialogues and exercises. For each noun, the glossary indicates the gender and any irregular forms associated with it.

For each verb, the glossary indicates the aspect and pattern of conjugation. However of all of the available textbooks out there this one makes a clear distinction between Croatian and Serbian and treats the two best-known standards quite evenly. Each dialogue appears on the same page in the two standards with the Serbian one sometimes in Cyrillic and the corresponding exercises focus on each variant.

Magner’s approach is a compromise in that the separated presentation of Croatian and Serbian aligns to sociolinguistic criteria but the combined treatment effectively aligns with the conclusions of comparative linguistic analysis where the two are variants of the same language. Each volume contains approximately 60, headwords. Among its virtues are that all headwords are indicated with diacritical marks showing pitch-accent and stress placement while the aspectual counterpart s for almost each verb have been placed alongside.

It’s probably the only worthwhile dictionary in the English-speaking world that is reasonably accessible and in stock at most booksellers.

TAC – Saim – FuS7a Arabic, Hebrew, Polish – Page 3 – UniLang

This can be quite frustrating when dealing with irregular verbs which are often troublesome for foreign learners. This is quite handy when you encounter exceptions.

Each volume contains approximately 30, headwords.