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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Understanding the Problems and Prospects of the Muslim Unity: Any attempt to set the theory of Muslim unity may not get the practical dimension until the standards of its understanding are laid out. In other words, it can be said that setting the basics of understanding the unity is a prerequisite for shaping effective theory of Muslim unity. He critically scrutinizes the basics of understanding the unity.
As he claims, one must find out the common grounds that especially bind Muslim countries together and all Muslims in general; and the issue of Muslim unity may remain vague until the Islamic culture is completely conceived of.
He says that “the unity of Islamic world cannot be conceived of without Islamic culture”. Sebarang percubaan untuk menetapkan teori perpaduan umat Islam mungkin tidak akan mendapat dimensi praktikal sehingga piawaian pemahaman dibentangkan.
Dalam erti kata lain, ia boleh dikatakan bahawa menetapkan asas-asas kefahaman perpaduan adalah prasyarat untuk membentuk teori berkesan perpaduan umat Islam. Beliau meneliti secara kritikal asas-asas untuk memahami perpaduan. Seperti didakwa beliau, seseorang perlu mencari alasan yang terutamanya mengikat negara-negara Islam bersama dan semua umat Islam secara umum, dan isu perpaduan umat Islam boleh kekal kabur sehingga budaya Islam diilhamkan sepenuhnya.
All undermining plights of Muslims at present constantly remind them of returning back to a sustainable unity which assures safety of their lives, wealth, honor, religion and lands from the voracious grabs of enemies.
Abul Ala Maududi
Therefore, the importance of this issue grips an especial attention and occupies a notable portion of the theoretical and practical endeavors of the prominent Muslim scholars. His works, idlam, seem islm be multi-dimensional which revolve around many issues such as basics of understanding of Muslim unity, the reasons behind disunity and prospective unifying forces of Muslim world, necessity, problems obstacles, ideology, standards and essentials of Muslim unity.
According to him, without sorting out the common platform for unity among Muslim societies and conceiving Islamic culture, Muslim unity may not be understood in an appropriate manner. The reasons he identifies for Muslim unity are doctrine of nationalism, interference of the super powers, intellectual and cultural influence of asad-asas West, oblivion of Muslim brotherhood, racial and ethnic pride and prejudice, demise of absolute loyalty to Islam, division between religious and political leadership, conflicts among various religious camps, and absence of concerted efforts and collective strategy to save the Ummah.
He refers to the problems and obstacles that undermine the Muslim unity from within and without. These obstacles are the onslaught of unhealthy foreign culture, the conflicting systems of education, nationalistic attitude, unconsciousness about common interests of Muslim world, influences of external enemies, etc.
Since its emergence in the early twentieth century, it has become a dominant philosophy in the Muslim world. It divides man from man on the basis of nationality. It demands that a nationalist should differentiate between national and non-national culturally, economically, politically and legally, securing the maximum advantages for his nation1.
Asas-asas Islam – Abu’l A’la Al-Maududi – Google Books
This doctrine has kept the nations of the world perpetually divided, and has promoted such deadly evils like suspicion, hatred, and hostility2 that hinder the desired unity. A nation state was held to be the end and all for the people3. It, in fact, generates and nurtures the sentiments of hostility, hatred and revenge4, makes man narrow-minded and biased, encourages nations and races to go against each other and makes them blind to understand truth, justice and humanity5.
Islamic Publications Ielam Lahore, 5th edn. As a result, in 20th century, during the First World War, a Muslim nation revolted against another Muslim nation instead of engaging in fight against the common enemies6.
As a doctrine, nationalism has no universality as it is a primordial historical phenomenon, asaa-asas emotional binding by which political communities originally emerged, and through which the ethnic community finds its historical expression and maturity. The related phenomena of communal and kslam violence afflict parts of Asia and Africa. He observes that nationalism was antithetical to Islamic revivalism.
One can argue that regional nationalism like Arab nationalism could be a prelude to a long term commitment to bringing about a pan-Islamic unity10 but in fact, the idea of Muslim unity is wider and more inclusive than any kind of nationalistic unity.
Since the colonial period, the colonizers have been perpetually influencing all the affairs of the Ummah, especially the issue of Muslim unity. They did not view any kind of Muslim unity in their favor. Therefore, they used their utmost influence in preventing the Muslim states coming closer to one another For this purpose, they always revived the germs of internecine conflicts between Muslim countries and keep them transmitting through the whole body of ummah.
Iqbal Academy Pakistan,p. Rockefeller Center,p. Esposito, Islam and Politics Syracuse, N. Syracuse University Press,p. Understanding the Problems and Prospects of the Muslim Unity historically that foreign powers came with alliance to abolish the Muslim unity as it happened to Ottoman Empire. The Christian Europe threatened this centuries-old center of Muslim power and the symbol of pan-Islamic unity. Some Muslim countries opposed to hold Rabitah summit in Saudi Arabia, and some others like Syria and Iraq, which were attracted by socialism, did not attend the summit.
The current situation of foreign influence on the Muslim unity is even worse. Once it was at the level of disagreement, now it reached to war, boycott and siege.
Hence, they were forced to reject their own beliefs and accept the ideas of the West Furthermore, the effect of this aas-asas onslaught is that it has been gradually depriving Muslim life islan Islamic orientation14 and similarly depriving them of a great unifying and supporting force As a result, the influenced masses became apologetic forces of the West and the rest remained resistant where the division and disunity clearly appear in Muslim societies.
Thus, existence of two types of masses within one society is a clear division which is commonly found in the Muslim world. Oblivion of Brotherhood Believers in Islam are considered as a “single brotherhood” and one family. This brotherhood shows common bonds between two or more persons who cooperate, coordinate, and act in the interest of each other; treat others’ joy and grief, pain and pleasure 12 John L. Esposito, Islam and Politics.
Presidency of Islamic ResearchIfta and Propagation,p. Karachi, International Islamic Publishers, p. This brotherhood previously worked as a corner-stone for a sound unity.
But the current scenario of the spirit of this relationship is regrettably missing.
Thus, it severely undermines the greater unity of the Muslims. Faith and brotherhood are the two pillars upon which the structure of the Muslim community is built. If either of them collapses, the very existence of the Muslim community is undermined, and its great role comes to nothing. This brotherhood which holds fast to a strong bond with Allah is a blessing with which Allah has favored the first Muslim community.
Allah isllam the hearts of both Arabs and non- Arabs with the tie of Islam.
Historical grudges, vengeance killings, personal ambitions and racial ties are reduced to nothing with the bond of brotherhood which unites all under the banner of Allah, the Almighty. All members of the Islamic society with their different races, tribes, dynasties, colors, or languages, therefore, are equal members and possess, originally and islqm, equal fundamental rights.
The Islamic society is thus a non-racial, non-tribal, casteless, and classless society. It may also be termed as an egalitarian society. It was on the 17 Jamil Farooqi, “Ummatic Unity: Islamic Book Trust, vol. Understanding the Problems and Prospects of the Muslim Unity basis of this supreme loyalty that Islam sought to build the character of the individuals. But during the period of kaududi this loyalty soon began to weaken, and caused erosion of the Muslim’s mauduid to Islam and the Millat, leading to its ultimate replacement by loyalty to the self, the clan or family.
This weakness naturally resulted into the growth of selfishness and self-promotion. In the absence of ideals and higher loyalties20, people are not willing to make any sacrifices, and everyone is interested merely in feathering his own nest or promoting the interests of his family or clan In contrast, during the days of the Prophet s. Ielam affairs of life, spiritual, moral, intellectual, cultural, political or philosophical, were held and directed by a central authority The jurists became the religious, moral and spiritual leaders and guides of the Muslims, and the kings assumed the political leadership of the community.
This bifurcation of leadership was ,aududi pernicious and was in any event bound to have disastrous consequences for the community. Therefore, this conflict between the political and religious leaderships resulted into mutual estrangement and hostility Adhunik Prokashoni, madudi, p.
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Primarily, these questions were political, but gradually they converted into religious conflicts These differences in thought, exacerbated by the differing and competing personalities of their leadership, have remained a continuing problem. Asas-asax, these very conditions and circumstances vitiated the Muslim Ummah, spoiled their unity, and brought their decline and misery.
Disunity poisoned the whole body of the Ummah in such a manner that it is now very difficult to conceive that once again the Muslim unity could be regained.
One group blames another for a very small and ordinary difference; even one does not hesitate to ssas-asas another Muslim infidel and disbeliever This issue of disunity among the Muslim Ummah grew so much in various sects that they always remained at confrontation with each other.
Instead of mutual love, it gave birth to divisions maududl Muslims, weakened their influence and provoked them to hate each other. Therefore, Muslim Ummah has been divided into various groups, sects, and camps Absence of Concerted Efforts and Collective Strategy Muslim world lacks concerted efforts and collective strategy to tackle the problems which any of its part faces.
It is also regrettably observed that problems are ignored as national or merely personal of the affected parties. Esposito, Islam and Politics, p. Darussalam, 1st edition,p. Maktabah maududo,p.
Understanding the Problems and Prospects of the Muslim Unity Muslim and Arab countries for not having common strategy to tackle the “Palestinian issue” and for regarding it as a national issue only. As a result, the Muslim countries in fact became separated from each other. If common problems of the Muslim world are not taken to solve and common interests are not given priority, a sound unity would remain as mere dream.
He analyzes its impacts on the Muslim unity saying that “we have at present two different and conflicting systems of education, both of which suffer from serious drawbacks.
One of these fails to prepare people to shoulder the practical responsibilities of worldly life, while the other fails to provide any religious guidance and moral orientation. These conflicting systems of education have produced people with fundamentally different outlooks which have resulted into a dangerous internal conflict in the Muslim society31″. Prospective Unifying Forces of the Muslim World Any kind of unity must have some common grounds and ingredients on which the edifice of the unity is built.
No matter whether these are the language, culture, nationality, race, region, color of skin, unilateral interest or religion etc. The same is true in regards to the Muslim unity. It also has common ingredients and grounds by which the expectation of the sustainable unity of the Muslim Ummah would become true.