Kitāb al–Milal wa al-Nihal (Arabic:كتاب الملل والنحل, The Book of Sects and Creeds), written by the Islamic scholar Muhammad al-Shahrastani (d. CE), is a. Al-Milal Wa-Al-Nihal. Book of Religious and Philosophical Sects. Muhammad Ibn Abd Al-Karim Shahrastani. Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts (). Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only once a year.

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It was written around and divides religions between sects, which have written doctrines, and creeds which do not. Umar at Fatimah’s house refers to the event where Umar and his supporters went to the house of Fatimah, the daughter of the prophet Muhammad, in order to get the allegiance of Ali and his followers.

This event has been recorded in both Shia and Sunni books and is said to be the cause of Fatimah’s miscarriage of Muhsin ibn Ali,[1][2] as well as Fatimah’s death shortly after.

The sermon included the famous statement, “to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also miilal Mawla. As Ali buried Muhammad a The Book of Sects and Creeds was one of the pioneers in developing an objective and philosophical approach to the study of religions. He was born in Imlal A. References Ian Richard Netton 19 December He was a celebrated, if not controversial, figure during his time,[4] being referred to in Muslim historical texts as “the scholar of the era.

Kitab al-fasl fi al-milal wa-al-ahwa’ wa-al-nihal

He has most commonly been attributed to the Iranian city of Isfahan,[6][7] often being referred to as “Dawud al-Isfahani. In theology or the history of religion, heresiology is the study of heresy, and heresiographies are writings about the topic. Heresiographical works were common in both medieval Christianity and Islam. Heresiology developed as a part of the emerging orthodoxy in the Christian state church of the Roman Empire.

Church scholars studied and documented the teachings of various Christian sects in order to clearly distinguish between those they accepted as orthodox and those they rejected as heretical.

In Islam, heresiology surveyed both the various Muslim sects, and also other religions such as Christianity and Judaism. Some like Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi and Ibn Hazm wrote polemical works, arguing the falseness of sects and religions other than their own. Others like Al-Shahrastani’s Al-Milal wa al-Nihal took a more impartial approach closer to modern religious studies works.

He had a good memory; his books became popular during his lifetime, and people benefited from them after his death. He is sometimes referred to as the “Herodotus of the Arabs”. More generally, described as prolific and as a polymath, he was the author of “over twenty” works, which dealt with “a wide variety of religious and secular subjects, including history both Islamic and universalgeography, the natural sciences, philosophy, and theology.

He mentions the names of many scholar associates he met along his The event of Ghadir Khumm Arabic and Persian: While returning from the Hajj pilgrimage, the Islamic prophet Muhammad gathered all the Muslims who were with him and gave a long sermon.

In the sermon, Muhammad announced that Ali ibn Abi Talib would be his successor. This sermon included Muhammad’s famous declaration that “to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla. Completed My favor upon you, and have chosen For you Islam as your Religion.

Mohsin ibn Ali, also spelled Muhsin ibn Ali, Arabic: He was miscarried by Fatimah when the house of Fatimah and Ali was attacked by Umar and his supporters shortly after Muhammad died. As Ali buried Muhammad and led his funeral prayer, a group of Muslims gathered at Saqifa.


Al-Athir lived a scholarly life in Mosul, often visited Baghdad and for a time traveled with Saladin’s army in Syria. He later lived in Aleppo and Damascus. He died in the city of Mosul. Modern age According to Reuters, his tomb was desecrated in Mosul by members of the al-Qaeda offshoot the Islamic State of His surname is derived from his grandfather’s name Waqid and thus he became famous as al-Imam al-Waqidi. He served as a judge qadi for the Abbasid caliph al-Ma’mun. He was the son of a preacher and he began studying at an early age with his father and other shaykhs.

Over time he studied other sciences but his primary interest was hadith.

At the age of 20 his father died and he went to Basra to search for hadith. In he set out on a second journey to Nishapur and he collected more hadith in Rey and Isfahan. It is unclear how long he traveled but his own accounts have him back in Baghdad by While he was an authority on nnihal it was his milall that led to his fame that would help him later in life.

One biographer, Al-Dhahabi, said that contemporary teachers and preachers Al-Sakhawi” refers to the village of Sakha in Egypt, where his relatives belonged. He was a prolific writer that excelled in the knowledge of hadith, tafsir, literature, and san. His work was also anthropological. For example, in Egypt he recorded the marital history of women, the largest sample on marriage in the Middle Ages, and found that at least a third of all women in the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and the Bilad al-Sham married more than once, with many milql three or more times.

According to al-Sakhawi, as many as three out of ten marriages in 15th century Cairo ended in divorce. He died in Medina. Works Arabic Wikisource has original text related to this article: The crater Abulfeda nihsl the Moon, is named after him. In his boyhood he devoted himself to ap study of the Qur’an and millal sciences, but from his twelfth year onward, he was almost constantly engaged in military expeditions, chiefly against the crusaders.

John, and took part in the sieges of Tripoli, Acre and Qal’at ar-Rum. In he entered the service of the Mamluk Sultan Malik al-Nasir and after twelv His master taught him accounting and trading and sent him to trade on his behalf.

After five years he returned to his old master and again travelled for Ibn Khaldun ; Arabic: He was also called Qadi Quddat and Da’i Duat. During his lifetime, he served four Fatimid Caliphs: After the Fatimid conquest of Egypt and Syria, al Although he was “a Mamluk-era historian and himself a Sunni Muslim, he is remarkable in this context for his unusually keen interest in the Isma’ili Fatimid dynasty and its milall in Egyptian history.

Later, he switched to the Shafi’ite school and finally to the Zahirite school.

| al-Milal wan-Nihal

From a family of Persian origin,[3] he was appointed to a chair in the mosque of Baybars in Cairo in He adhered to the Shafi’i madhhab and is one of the latter-day authorities of imlal Shafi’i School, considered to be one of the Ashabun-Nazzar Assessors whose degree of ijtihad is agreed upon. An alternative spelling of his name is Jalaluddin. Today, he is best known for his expertise in Qur’anic exegesis, Islamic jurisprudence and world history, but he has been described as “an impressively prolific polymath.


He wrote on such subjects as poetry, lexicography, grammar, ethics, mathematics, and medicine. Although it eventually became extinct, al-Tabari’s madhhab flourished among Sunni ulama for two centuries after his death. Sayf ibn Umar al-Usayyidi al-Tamimi Arabic: It also contains important information about the structure of early Muslim armies and government.

According to al-Dhahabi, Sayf died during the reign of Harun al-Rashid Until he lived in Armenia and Khorasan, working under the mila of the Iranian dynasty of the Tahirids; then he traveled to India, Egypt and the Maghreb,[5] and died in Egypt. Kitab al-Buldan in Arabic. List of characters and names, mentioned in the Quran. The names are sorted alphabetically. Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti — Arabic: Al-Jabarti’s paternal family had Banu Hashim ancestry.

Ibn Ishaq collected oral traditions that formed the basis of an important biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Life Born in Medina about the year A.

One of the eminent Middle Eastern historians of his age, he spent most of his life in Baghdad and enjoyed great influence at the court of the caliph al-Mutawakkil.

He traveled in Syria and Iraq, compiling information for his major works.

He died in as the result of a drug called baladhur hence his name. Biography Al-Dhahabi was born in Damascus on 5 October His family was of Turkmen descent, originally lived in Mayyafariqin, northeast of Diyar bakr. At some point, they moved to Damascus. He began his study of hadith at age eighteen, travelling from Damascus to Baalbek, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, Nabulus, Cairo, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Hijaz, and elsewhere, after which he returned to Damascus, mila, he taught and authored many works and achieved wide renown as a perspicuous critic and expert examiner of the hadith, encyclopedic historian and biographer, and foremo He is said to have died at the age of 62 in Baghdad and was buried in the cemetery of the Syrian gate.

Kitab Nihla Al-Kubra is a compendium of biographical information about famous Islamic personalities. This eight-volume work contains the lives of Muhammad, his Companions and Helpers, including those who fought at the Battle of Nihla as a special class, and of the following generation, the Followers, who received their tradition The canon of work by Ibn Hazm, prolific and important Andalusian jurist, belletrist, and heresiographer is extensive.

He was said to have written over books. He spent his entire life in Al-Andalus, most of it in Seville and Almeria.

Only two of his works milwl survived. He studied under al-Ayni and al-Maqrizi, wa of the leading Cairene historians and scholars of the day. His style is annalistic and gives precise dates for most events; this format makes it clear that Ibn Taghribirdi had privileged access to the sultans and their records.

Works al-Nujum al-zahira fi muluk Misr wa’l-Qahira.

This wxn begins with the Islamic conquest of Egypt and continues until just before the author’s death. Shams al-din Abu al-Muzaffar Yusuf ibn Kizoghlu c. Biography Born in Baghdad, the son of a Turkish freedman and Ibn al-Jawzi’s daughter, he was raised by his famous grandfather.

Some of these works survive only through Ibn al-Furat’s reuse of them.