Ahmet Bican Ercilasun – Başlangıçtan Yirminci Yüzyıla Türk Dili Tarihi SÖZ BAŞI relating Korean to Japanese adlı makalesi (Language) Japoncanın bir Altay. The Place of Turkish among The World Languages Ahmet Bican Ercilasun* 1 .. Ercilasun, Ahmet B., “Askerlikte Onlu Sisteme Türklerin Katkıları”, Makaleler. 23 Ahmet Rasim, Muhtasar Sarf-ı Türkî, Artin Asaduryan Matbaası, İstanbul, , s. ERCİLASUN Ahmet Bican, Türk Gramerinin Sorunları Toplantısı, TDK.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Ercilasjn paper focuses on the genetic and typological classifications of the world languages and states the place of the Turkish language in these classifications. In genetic classification Altay, Ural-Altay, Nostratic and Eurasiatic theories are consid- ered and the relationship between the Turkish and other languag- es are analyzed.
In the end, some categorical, syntactic, morphological and phonetic characteristics of Turkish are mentioned and these characteristics are compared with other world languages. The language of immigrant Turks from this region to Europe, America and Australia is also included in this narrow meaning. This meaning denotes a population more than 70 million. The wide meaning points out the language of all Turkic peoples. This wide meaning denotes a population close to million people. In this paper, I used the term Turkish with its wide meaning.
Typological According to xhmet classification, Turkish belongs to Altay languages.
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These languages also include Mongolian and Manchu-Tungus languages. Some Altaists include Korean and Japanese to this language family. Altaists think that all these languages have a common ancestor.
Among this family, the closest language to Turkish is Mongolian. Some of the comparative linguists placed Turkish into the Ural-Altay language family in the 19th century. This family mainly composed of an Ural branch and an Altay amhet. According to this theory, Turkish was a far relative to Ural languages such as Hungarian and Finnish.
During the second half of the 20th century two more theories placed Turkish even in ercilwsun language families. The first theory, Ecrilasun theory, developed in Moscow in the beginning of s.
According to this theory which was formulated by Vladimir Illich-Svitich there are 6 language families which are related to each other genetically and they comprise one macro-family. These language families are: Another advocate of the Nostratik theory is Aharon Dolgopolsky and he includes Eskimo-Aleut family instead of Dravidian family Greenberg According to this theory, Turkish belongs to Nostratic macro-family and Ercilasuh family. This means that it is close relative with Altaic languages such as Mongolian and Tungusic languages, and it is far relative with other languages such as Arabic, Georgian, English, Finnish, Tamil or Eskimo.
In this theory, Korean is considered inside the Altaic family whereas Japanese considered outside of it. Another macro-family theory is formulated by Joseph H. Greenberg in the USA during s. However, his Works were published in and According to this theory Turkish belongs to Altay family which is under the Eurasiatic macro-family. It is obvious that Greenberg considered Japanese and Korean as a distinct language family from Altay family. The main difference between these resembling two theories is the difference in Hamito-Semitic, Dravidian and Kartvelian families.
These families are considered as the members of the Nostratic macro-family.
Ahmet Bican Ercilasun – Başlangıçtan Yirminci Yüzyıla Türk Dili Tarihi
On the other hand, Eurasiatic macro-family contains Japanese-Ainu, Gilyak and Chukchi- Kamchatka families which are not included in the Nostratic theory.
Illich-Svitich, the founder of the Nostratic theory, compared words from these six language families makwleleri claimed a common origin for them. Greenberg published his Lexicon in and compared words. Nostratic theory gained some defenders in the US after s. Bomhard and John C.
Kerns published their work named The Nostratic Macrofamily inand they compared words. They also included the Sumerian into the Nostratic macro-family. The reason of flourishing the macro-family theories in the US after s is the developments in genetics. According to these developments, all humanity can be considered as the descendants of one common ancestor.
Merritt Ruhlen, student of Greenberg and John D. Bengston published a large paper named Global Etymologies. They found 27 common words in various languages which are belong to different language families. They found examples from languages which have a word similar in sound and meaning. On the other hand, these theories can find more defenders when there are more developments in genetics and comparative linguistics.
There are some of criteria in this classification. The most common one is the criteria of the word- building. According to this criteria world languages are classified under three different types: There is a tone system which has been fully developed. Tones in the words have the characteristic of differentiating the meaning. New words can also be formulated by combining different words. This can be explained as internal change. Words are formulated from the changes in the root vowels.
Ahmet Bican Ercilasun |
For example, the English word, sing, has a change in its vowel sound in sang and sung forms. In agglutinating languages, words are formulated by adding the morphemes with each other. The relations between the words also depend on endings. There is no ablaut. Altaic languages are agglutinating languages, including Turkish. Other agglutinating languages are: Ural languages, Kartvelian languages, Northwestern Caucasian languages, Northeastern Caucasian languages, Dravidian languages, Eskimo- Aleut languages, Chukchi-Kamchatka languages, Austronesian languages, Bantu languages, Athabaskan languages, Sioux languages and Maya languages.
Bask, Swahili, Cheyenne, Cherokee, Zulu. Sumerian, Elamite, Hattian, Hurrian and Urartian languages. There are a lot biczn languages which ercllasun unrelated with each other and are classified as agglutinating languages.
Yet, bucan should note that the languages which belong to the same family have the same characteristics. Another criterion in typological classification is the word order.
There are six different types of languages according to their word order: Object In fact, there cannot be more than six possibilities mathematically.
Most of the world languages have the SVO word order: Turkish is a SOV language. Other Altay languages have the same order, too. Ancient Chinese ahmdt has this order. Indian, Persian, Armenian and some other Indo-European languages, as well as some ancient languages such as Sumerian, Hittite and Elam have the same word order.
There are fewer languages in other types. One more criterion in typological classification is the order in the adjective and noun compounds. In these compounds the main element is placed at the end in Turkish, and the secondary element is in the beginning. On the contrary, the secondary element is at the end in the Indo-European and Semitic languages.
I can mention some other typological characteristics of Turkish which are different from other languages, so that it would be easier to understand the place of Turkish among the world languages: Turkish is a post-positional language. Relations between the words are made by the word endings or post-positional words.
On the other hand, Indo- European and Semitic languages are pre-positional languages. Turkish has participles and gerunds instead of this system. There is not an article in Turkish in contrast to Semitic languages and most of the Indo-European languages. It is formed by accusative in the objects. Turkish, as most of the world languages, has the singular and plural forms. Most of the languages can use the same word as the root of noun and verb.
In Turkish noun and verb roots are different words. The ones which are seen as the same word either are not the roots or are formed later. The question which has the answer of yes or no is formed by the ending -mi in Turkish. It is formed by changing the word order in some of Indo- European languages and by prefix in Arabic.
Like most of the languages Turkish has decimal number system. The number system is based on twenty in some of the Caucasian languages and Bask language. Comparison with other languages: Now, let me give some phonetic characteristics: Turkish has the vowel harmony.
Turkish usually zhmet more vowels than other languages: Generally eight and even nine in some dialects. For example Arabic has only three vowels.