Results 1 – 18 of 18 El Kitsch by Abraham A. Moles and a great selection of related books, El kitsch. El arte de la felicidad. Abraham Moles. Published by. : El Kitsch: L Paidos – pp El arte de la felicidad. L. critica y termi- nologia literaria. Barcelona: Ariel, Moles, Abraham. El kitsch. El arte de la felicidad. Trans. Josefina Ludmer. Buenos Aires: Paid6s,
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The Asian Financial Cr The effect of t The subprime credit cr Effect of acidic elect Bayesian methods for f On the Equivalence Bet This mapping will allow us to view a fekicidad encompassing cellular, pluricellular and social organisms.
Artistic education enhances dispositions towards aesthetic molfs but aesthetic theory has neglected research of aesthetic susceptibilities that deplete basic adaptive strategies of self-esteem and feliidad in individuals and social groups.
During the 20th century we have witnessed the appalling political effects of stereotypation, aggrandizement and mokes deployed by aesthetic means in its noxious manifestations. The present globalization process and the acceleration of telecommunications turn the question of aesthetic contagion and its alluring power all the more relevant and worthy of examination.
In all cases we must deal with aesthetic mechanisms and corresponding susceptibilities capable of generating significant social effects. The problem remains open, but a definite move in this direction is construing an adequate explanatory paradigm where the projection from natural sciences to cultural studies seems auspicious. The first took hardly 15 to 20 days until the symptoms appeared. The second took years.
Going to a concert, a movie or a painting exhibition are deliberate acts of contagion. Instead of the enlargement of our lymph nodes, it is our sensibility and understanding of life that may be enlarged. As the metaphorical projection above is indicating, we will apply a biological framework to understand cultural phenomena in the present context of massification and globalization. Lakoff and Johnson have amply argued that metaphorical projections are not only basic components in everyday speech and common understanding but heuristic tools that have accompanied the develop1 ment of philosophical and scientific knowledge.
Among the latter we will briefly examine two categories that can be considered as aesthetic pathogens: Hence a definition of cultural disease is required to discern between invigorating and pathomorphic symptoms derived from the aesthetic in a given social context.
What is important to emphasize is that throughout these processes, the aesthetic plays an important role as a powerful means of contagion due to its alluring potential to engage mental, emotional and corporeal responses.
Formats and Editions of El Kitsch : el arte de la felicidad 
Siglo veintiuno9th. Thus semiotics or the study of signs is equivalent for cultural epidemiology to the study of micro-organisms for medical epidemiology. Signs, as cells and neurons, are clustered and activated into patterns that participate in the development of an organism in all three orders of autopoietic units defined by Maturana and Varela: In this paper we will focus exclusively on human third order autopoietic units.
We have learned very much during the last decades about sign processes that take place in first and rl order units such as DNA transmission and the operation of immunological and nervous systems. In third order units, these processes have been explored by semiotics, linguistics, discourse analysis, cultural studies and hermeneutics, yet we do not fully understand why do certain sign patterns rather than others fit more easily into greater number of receptors 5 and why are they consequently more contagious in cultural transmission.
One of the answers, and a fundamental one, pertains the aesthetic molds. Aesthetic patterns apparently engage emotion related centers of the brain such as the limbic system, the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, that activate attention and sym6 pathetic identification directly affecting action and decision making.
The Semiotic Web Berlin: Humberto R Maturana and Francisco J. A Naturalistic Approach Oxford and Massachusetts: Blackwell who attempted to use an epidemiological approach to culture, yet neglected both the aesthetic and the semiotic constituents of this process, which are no less than the form, content and mechanism of cultural transmission, mokes thus his endeavor missed its target.
Today, aesthetic foci are repeatedly exploited through psychological engineering or trial and error strategies by the advertisement industry and po8 litical marketing. As can be inferred from the above, the aesthetic domain is not reduced to the narrow sense of art and beauty but embraces the various areas of cultural production in both poetic and prosaic 10 manifestations.
It is obviously not reserved to the cultural elite, appealing to both refined as well as to tacky taste by what Bourdieu defines as habitus 11 within the wide spectrum of cultural classes. A Naturalistic Approach, op. He does not, however, develop this idea which is only mentioned briefly. Consumers often choose among similar use-value products based mainly upon the aesthetic-value of their packaging or advertisement. It is time to overcome this moralistic, naive dogma and face the fact that aesthetic contagion can be used for many purposes both socially advantageous and deleterious.
We have neglected and forgotten too soon the essential role aesthetic contagion took in the 14 configuration of the Third Reich and other totalitarian regimes. We can define cultural health and disease based on an embodied, absolute criterion of thriving, balanced life as a fundamental principle. It is an integrating experience at two levels: Minuitp. Kluwer Academic Publishers On the other hand, through this particular, negative case of cultural infection, aesthetic foci are deliberately or not exerted to paralyze, deteriorate, and injure the quality of life of second and third order units by alienating individuals from themselves, their community and their context.
If life is ordered through various scales from the cell to the tissue, the organ, the system, the individual body to the social body, the latter is also networked through various scales from the family to the neighborhood, the city, the nation and the global system.
Disease or malfunction at any of these levels directly affects those subsequent in various degrees depending on proximity and density of connections. They have all struggled to define kitsch by philosophical, artistic, religious and ethical approaches with no final result, as it is sometimes taken as a kind of art, or as pseudoart, as a subjective state, as a quality of certain objects, persons, 17 responses or behaviors.
Through a biological metaphorical mapping, the concept of kitsch can be significantly clarified as an aesthetic pathogen analogous to a simple cold everyone has experienced in its effects of watery eyes, nasal congestion, temporary numbing, and a pleasurable sense of unreality in a self indulgent, cozy manner. Abrqham can recognize its similarity to the lachrymose effect, the mawkish, gushy, sentimental experience of kitsch as its equivalent in the cultural domain that may become a chronic condition as it is constantly produced and reproduced by global mass culture.
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Aesthetic contagion may enhance understanding and derives its pleasure from the experience of opening up our capacity to sensuously, mentally, and emotionally relish life as a diversified yet integrated whole. Hermann Broch, Kitsch, vanguardia y arte por el arte Barcelona: Tusquets2nd ed. Oxford University Presspp. Kitsch is, however, a relatively innocuous pathogen when compared to another much more malignant aesthetic infection analogous to neoplasia or tumoration which has either passed unnoticed by aestheticians or been conflated 19 with kitsch: As there are various degrees of virulence among tumors ranging from benign outgrowths to malignant cancer, the glamour pathogen can also manifest itself as a harmless blow up of certain cultural characters, views and values or as their oppressive aggrandizement that seizes 2nd or 3rd order human organisms jeopardizing their identity.
Among its various consequences are mass hysteria related to celebrities, rejection of self body image as in anorexia and bulimia disorders among young female population in Western countries or as the increasing demand for Caucasian style folded eyelid plastic surgery among Korean young girls, likely to be 22 followed by breast implants.
Herman Broch, Kitsch, vanguardia y arte por el arte, op. The problem is that hoarding itself is aesthetically exhibited as the topmost aim and glory of individuals: On the aesthetics of accumulation, cf. In more traditional societies the opposite process prevails, where rather than glamorize celebrities or aggressive lifestyles, older members of the community are honored generating loop patterns that guide individuals naturally through their biological and social cycles.
Beauty and the sublime are attributed to the glamorized as ugliness and the grotesque to the stigmatized. While glamorization is tolerated as endemic and even sponsored by the entertainment, sports and fashion industries, its stigmatization effects are overlooked despite their harmful consequences particularly among the most suscep24 tible population: Beauty and ————————— On stigmatization, I will refer the reader to the classic work of Erving Goffman, Stigma: The great scale and the conflictive, intimidating character that Kant found in the sublime are also mimetized in glamour, except that it is not reason and imagination which conflict in the latter but a batesonian type double bind tangle of the erotization-frustration coupling or self effacing veneration.
By disguising sentimentality as sensibility, archetypes are reduced to mere stereotypes shattering any genuine communicative and social bond. Glamour is thus immediately shrunk into its proper size and kitsch can be appreciated as a pathetic caricature of beauty. Humor antibodies allow us to even indulge in the pleasure of these frivolities keeping them at a proper distance. The point is whether this metaphor can be used for analytical rather than purely ideological purposes and whether it can render any heuristic value.
My claim is that it does, as it has enabled the distinction among different sorts of aesthetic contagion. We conclude that the aesthetic is not always perfectly neutral nor entirely virtuous. When the glamorizing elements such as appearance, youth, success or money are lost, the glamorized themselves become victims of stigmatization as in the dramatic self imposed reclusion of divas like Marlene Dietrich and Greta Garbo.
Aesthetic foci are thus a determining factor and a necessary but not sufficient condition for cultural contagion.
Contagion is therefore the result of an organic coupling between strong magnetic disturbing agents or aesthetic foci of contagion and related dispositions ,oles factors in the structural identity abraha, the disturbed systems.
Whereas susceptibilities may pass unnoticed as weak empirical evidence lacking precise tools for their diagnosis, aesthetic foci are salient if adequately interpreted as symptoms to diagnose disease in all cases of sentimentality, stereotypation, grandiloquence, aggrandizement and stigmatization which, from a medical perspective, are analogous to congestion, clotting, rigidity, tumoration, swelling and intolerance to self substances.
Aestheticians have thus a substantial responsibility to detect and understand aesthetic foci of contagion, particularly in the prevalent process of globalization, a task we will never be able to cope with if we continue to circumscribe the aesthetic to the narrow margins of art and beauty. Cultural epidemics are not new: The problem remains open, but a definite move in its solution is arriving to an adequate explanatory moels where moless projection from natural sciences to cultural studies seems indeed auspicious.
Dispositions and susceptibilities are also mentioned by Sperber in Explaining Culture; A Naturalistic Approach, but due to the problems mentioned above, they are not properly developed.