Abhijñānashākuntala or Abhijñānaśākuntalam (Devanagari: अभिज्ञानशकुन्तलम्), is a well-known Sanskrit play by Kālidāsa, dramatizing the story of. Sanskrit title: अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम्; Translated by Chandra Rajan; See also reviews of other translations of Abhijnanasakuntala: The Recognition of. Usual variants are Abhijñānaśakuntalā, Abhijñānaśākuntala, Abhijñānaśakuntalam and the “grammatically indefensible” Abhijñānaśākuntalam. The Sanskrit.
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Tenderness in the expression of abhijnanasaukntalam and richness of creative fancy has assigned to him a lofty place among the poets of all nations. Puraa kaveenaam gananaa prasamge kanishthhikaadhishthtita Kaalidaasah Adyaapi tattulya kaverabhaavaat anaamikaa saarthhavatee babhoova.
In the Oriental method of counting, kanishthhikaa or the little finger comes first, then anaamikaa the ring finger and so on. In an assembly of learned men every one counted Kalidasa on the little finger.
No name was forthcoming for the next finger. Therefore its name anaamikaa became literally true because there was no name to assign to the ring finger. The outline of the story is something like this. Tired of hunting and overcome by hunger abhijnanasakuntalak thirst, he reaches a cool tapovan where there are plenty of abhijnanasakungalam tress and sweet water.
Having quenched his thirst and satisfied his hunger, he goes alone into the hermitage of sage Kanva to pay his respects. The sage had gone out to gather flowers and fruits. His foster-daughter Sakuntala receives him with courtesy.
Shakuntala – Wikipedia
The king is captivated by the simple rustic loveliness of her personality. From Sakuntala he understands that she was born to Vishwamitra and Menaka; Sage Kanva was her foster father. The King proposes to wed her under gaandharva vivaha legally sanctioned for a kshatriya. Sakuntala consents on condition that the son born of her shall succeed to the throne. All this happened in the interval when Sage Kanva was away. When the sage returned, he knew by his spiritual insight that Sakuntala and Dusyanta were united by gandharva vivaaha and his daughter was pregnant.
The sage puts his seal approval on the marriage as divinely ordained and, in due course, Sakuntala is delivered of a male child.
Dushyanta refuses to take Sakuntala as his wife, in spite of her entreaties, pretending that he had not met her at all. Sakuntala condemns the king for his treachery and prepares to leave. At that instant a voice from the sky ashareeri declares that Sakuntala is the lawfully wedded wife of the king and the boy is his son. Now that the marriage has been testified to by divine agency to the satisfaction of his ministers and subjects, the king gladly accepts her as his wife and her boy as his son.
The poet has invented dramatic situations and characters that captivate the hearts and appeal to finer emotions of the readers. The narration about the birth of Sakuntala by her female friends to the king instead of by herself is certainly an improvement calculated to enhance the dramatic effect and is more in accordance with decorum.
The absence of Kanva on a long pilgrimage when the king first comes to the hermitage, instead of the short absence set out in the Maha Bharata story, conduces to the gradual growth of love between the lovers leading to a consummation in due course. Also, when Sakuntala is sent to the palace of Dushyanta she is still pregnant and not having a son of six years as in the original narration in Mahabharata. Kaavyeshu naatakam ramyam tatra ramya shankutalaa Tatraapi chaturthhongkah tatra shloka chatushtayam Tatraapi yaasyatyadyeti sloko ateeva manoharah.
I name thee, O Sankuntala! They suggest that Sakuntala contains the history of a development — the development of flower into fruit, of earth into heaven, of matter into spirit. Love is elevated from the sphere of physical beauty to the eternal heaven of moral beauty. He then refers to the ease with which Kalidasa sansorit effected this junction of earth with heaven. Freedom and restraint are marvelously blended in her, and the consequential joys and sorrows find a meeting point in her.
Trustfulness was firmly enthroned in her heart, and though for abhijnanqsakuntalam moment it caused her fall, it also redeemed her for ever. From the Fourth Act to the Fifth Act there is a sudden change of atmosphere. The ideal world of the hermitage makes way for the royal court with its hard sanksrit. Then the repudiation comes.
Sakuntala is once for all torn away from the simple and beauteous environments of hermitage life and is cast upon the world helpless. The deep silence worthy of the mighty grief of the mourner is not disturbed by the poet by an exposition of the austere life of sorrows led by Sakuntala under new environments in the hermitage of Maricha in the celestial regions to which she has been transported.
Now comes the turn of Dushyanta to be stricken with remorse. This remorse itself is tapasya, which purges him of all his sins of the past. One sudden gust of youthful impulse had in a moment given her up to Dushyanta, but that was not the true, the full winning of her. The best means of winning is by devotion, by tapasya.
What is easily gained is as easily lost. Fate now plunged Dusyanta into deep grief and thus made him worthy of true love. According to Kale the four best slokas are 6, 18,19 and 20of the same Act. As per commentator Satavadhana the slokas 17,18,19,20 of the same Act are the best. However, the text of all the above slokas are reproduced here in Devanagari and Roman scripts with their free rendering in English.
Yaasyatyadya shakuntaleti hridayam samsprishtam utkanthhayaa Kanthhah stambhita baashpavrittikalushah chintaajadam darshanam Vaiklayam mama taavadeedrishamaho snehaat aranyaukasah Peedyante grihinah katham nu tanayaa vishlesha dukhairnavaih IV My throat is choked by the tears I try to hold back. My eyes have become inert as I am deep in thought. If this is the depth of sorrow of a forest-dweller like me because of my attachment, then how much will be the mental agony of those householders at the prospect of separation from their newly wed daughters.?
Paatum na prathhamam vyavasyati jalam yushmaaswapeeteshu yaa Naadatte priyamandanaapi bhavataam snehena yaa pallavam Aadye vah prathhama prasootisamaye yasyaa bhavatyutsavah Seyam yaati shakuntalaa patigriham sarvairanujnaapyataam IV Here Sage Kanva is addressing the trees, plants and creepers of the hermit in the following words: May you all bid her farewell and good bye.
Asmaan saadhu vichintya samyamadhanaanuchchaih kulam chaatmana- Stwayyasyaah kathamapyabaamdhava kritaam snehapravrittim cha taam Saamaanyapratipattipoorvakamiyam daareshu drishyaa twayaa Bhaagyaayattamatah param na khalu tadvaachyam vadhoobandhubhih IV This is the message of Kanva to Dushyanta concerning Sakuntala: Anything beyond this will depend on her bhaagya or luck, the relatives of the bride have no say about that.
Shushrooshaswa guroon kuru priyasakheevrittim sapatnee jane Bharturviprakrutaapi roshanatayaa maa sma prateepam gamah Bhooyishtthham bhava dakshinaa parijane bhaagyeshwanutsekinee Yaantyevam grihineepadam yuvatayah vaamaah kulasyaadhayah IV This is the advice of Kanva to Sakuntala: By following these dictums you will acquire the status of a true housewife.
Those who do the opposite cause great mental agony to the family.
Abhijanavato bhartuh shlaaghye sthhitaa grihineepade Vibhavagurubhih krityaistasya pratikshanamaakulaa Tanayamachiraat praacheevarkam prasooya cha paavanam Mama virahajaam na twam vatse shucham ganayishyasi IV Establishing yoursef as the laudable grihini housewife of your husband of noble birth, always being excited about the weighty matters of state in wich he is engaged and having given birth to a son before long like the Sun by the East, you shall not, my dear, worry about my pangs of separation from you.
Bhootwaa chiraaya chaturantha mahee sapatnee Daushyantimapratiratham tanayam niveshya Bhartraa tadarpita kutmbabharena saardham Shaante karishyasi padam punaraashramesmin IV Remain long as the sapatnee co-wife of Mahee the whole of earth personified, being figuratively another wife of the King.
Vest in him the responsibilities of the family and the kingdom. Then sanskrut you avhijnanasakuntalam come back to this peaceful hermitage with your husband. Where are the words of Kalidasa and where are we who try to interpret or comment on them? Our effort in this regard is something like attempting to illumine the entire palace of the king by a lamp emitting only dim light. Dear Sri, I know you will be busy. Dear sir, can u please translate the 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 46, 47, 49, 51, 52 and 56 sloka of 7th canto of kumarasambhavam.
Word to word will be very helpful as we r in budding stage of learning sanskrit. Abhijnanasakunta,am rahasi prushta, maunam eva uttaram daddho. Is a couplet from Shakuntalam that I remember almost 40 years after studying it.
Cannot find any link to it. Dear sir can you give me the answer of these questions The courtly world of the king end the green world of sec kanva as never reconcile? You must log in to post a comment. Greatness of Kalidasa 1. Source of the plot of Sakuntala 2. Criticism of the Play Abhijaanashaakuntalam abhijnanasakunyalam.
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